July 1, 2004 

Front Page

Land use survey gets 100% support

By Tom Carosello

Staff Writer

No majority report, no minority report; this time it's unanimous.

After lengthy debate June 23, Archuleta County's "preferred alternative" for the development of new land-use regulations got a 7-0 vote from the Upper San Juan Regional Planning Commission in favor of pursuing "performance-based" land use regulations.

Specifically, a resolution approved last week states the commission "hereby recommends to the Archuleta County Board of Commissioners that it direct planning staff and the planning commission to draft the Archuleta County Performance Development Code and an associated transfer of development rights program."

The resolution fulfills a request from Bill Steele, county administrator, suggesting a similar, May 26 majority recommendation from the planning commission to the county board be ratified through written "minority and majority reports."

That recommendation concerned changes to key components of the next "zoning" development phase, a bulk-mailing survey designed to gather public input on aspects to be included in the new land-use code.

Likewise, the current recommendation from the planning commission includes a condition related to a main element of the survey - the notion that county planning staff consider changing the number of proposed, geographical "planning districts" in the county from four to five.

In summary, the survey originally approved by the county commissioners last month included polling county residents according to the following district proposals: Southwest (including Arboles), Southeast (including Chromo and the Upper Blanco area), Northeast (including the Lower Blanco and Pagosa Lakes area), and the Northwest District (including Aspen Springs and Chimney Rock).

The condition added to the planning commission's latest recommendation, however, suggests the Pagosa Lakes area be removed from the Northeast district and polled as a separate district.

Further consideration of the planning commission's recommendation is slated for the July 6 county commissioners' agenda.

On a related note, last week's meeting was the last of the Upper San Juan Regional Planning Commission in its current formation.

According to Jeff Robins, county attorney, a forthcoming resolution will create a new entity to be known as the "Archuleta County Planning Commission."

A new commission is necessary, said Robbins; state law requires land-use recommendations to the board of county commissioners to be handed down from an entity comprised solely of county representatives.

The current membership of the USJRPC, except for representatives of Hinsdale and Mineral counties, will apparently serve on the new commission.

The future path

According to Marcus Baker, associate county planner, the board of commissioners' expected decision next week on the recommendation from the planning commission will set the course for ongoing implementation of the Community Plan as follows:

- If the board rejects the recommendation, planning staff will either "return to the Community Plan" for pursuit of the preferred alternative or revisit/review other land-use alternatives.

Both scenarios would apparently involve participation from the Citizens Task Force, the eight-member committee charged with evaluating new options for land-use alternatives based on information compiled by planning staff during a series of related focus groups last year.

The task force was appointed by the board in January with the understanding its role in the process would be limited to the conceptual stages of development.

- If the board accepts the recommendation, the Citizens Task Force would be disbanded and a promotional campaign to encourage participation in the pubic survey would be launched, and the survey mailed.

- After the processing of all returned surveys, drafting of the new performance development code would begin.

This step would involve simultaneous development of the corresponding transfer of development rights program, as well as "district workshops" designed to gather public comment on the delineation of commercial and industrial areas within each district.

- The resulting draft codes would then be presented to the planning commission during public hearings and either revised or approved and presented to the county commissioners in a work session.

This step suggests the possibility of seeking advice on the proposed code from outside consultants with extensive experience in land-use planning.

- After necessary revisions, the final draft of the code would be presented for formal adoption in a public hearing before the county commissioners.


Investigative panel eyed for USJHSD fiscal probe

By Tess Noel Baker

Staff Writer

The past may be resuscitated yet.

At a workshop June 23, directors of the Upper San Juan Health Service District Board discussed forming an ad hoc committee to collect evidence regarding "possible illegal actions" by former board members or employees of the district.

Board president Pam Hopkins said the committee could collect evidence from the community, information from the audit report expected this month and anything else that may turn up to forward to the district attorney.

The current board passed a resolution in June criticizing the actions of some of the former board members regarding severance payments to employees made days before the new board took office. However, the current board stopped short of pursuing a civil case on advice of legal counsel unless additional evidence came to light.

In a phone interview Wednesday morning, former board chairman Charlie Hawkins said as far as the severance pay, the former board simply honored contracts "drawn up by our attorneys a couple of years ago." The district finances, he said, were in good shape when he left.

"I handed it (the district) over to them with $110,000 and all the bills paid current to the day we walked out of there except for a few bills that were in dispute," he said. The disputed bills involved a locum tenens physician contracted who never showed up. "They can go through those books up one side and down the other and they certainly won't find any fraud."

Hopkins said the financial picture of the district continues to look worse and worse.

"We keep running into bills we were just not aware of," Hopkins said, giving the example of a check made out to the clinic in 2003 by a state nonprofit organization to cover a cancer treatment on a patient. The nearly $900 check was supposedly received by the district, but never forwarded to the billing agency. Eventually, a collection agency went after the patient for nonpayment.

Hopkins said at this point it is unknown how many more of such cases might be out there. A committee of six was suggested to look into these issues. Suggested committee members include: Pam Hopkins, Jim Knoll, J.R. Ford, Glenn Bergmann, Dick Blide and Dick Babillis.

The board has set two meetings in July to consider action on this and other items. A special meeting is set Tuesday, July 6. The board's regular meeting is July 20. Both will begin at 7 p.m. in the second-floor board room at Fire Station One on North Pagosa Boulevard.


Privatizing an option for clinic's survival

By Tess Noel Baker

Staff Writer

It's a similar refrain.

The Upper San Juan Health Service District is in financial trouble.

In fact, "financial hemorrhaging" is a prase that has been repeated several times in regard to the Dr. Mary Fisher Medical Center and its high overhead compared to patient numbers.

An audit has been ordered.

Employees are worried about their jobs.

The board is scrambling to find a solution before time, and money, run out.

"In the short-term, we are going to have to make some very hard decisions to insure our survival," board member Neal Townsend said to three employees, two from EMS and one from the Dr. Mary Fisher Medical Center, who came to a board workshop June 23 to ask about the future of their jobs. "Some of those decisions you are going to love and some of the decisions you are going to hate, but a lot of people have come together to try to solve all this and we need to continue to flesh it out," he said. "There are real issues that will haven an impact of people's lives, unfortunately."

Ron Crandall, who has been a part-time emergency vehicle operator at the district for about a year, said it was important that the board understand what's at stake for the employees.

"Myself," he said. "I need this job. It started out as a fun part-time job, but with babies and other bills it has turned into a must have. I don't want to lose hours because people start getting cut from shifts." Crandall said he and other employees were also promised scholarships for training that have never been delivered on.

"We just want to know what's getting cut and how many people are going to lose their jobs," he said.

The word from the clinic was pretty much the same.

"People want to know what's the future for the district and will they have a job?" Erika Flesher, an RN at the clinic said. "It's very difficult. The community is very mad at that place (the Mary Fisher clinic) and they don't want to come. We need some public relations or something so people don't think it's a terrible place."

Pam Hopkins, board chairman, said the board would make a decision as soon as possible and pass that on to the employees.

"We're not going to tell you things that aren't there," she said.

A little later, Jim Knoll, chairman of the Medical Advisory Committee, presented four options for the future of the Dr. Mary Fisher Medical Center and the "very rough draft" of his recommendation - reorganization - for the second time in less than a year.

Knoll said, in his opinion, for the short term the board should focus on "essential services" - 24/7 emergency doctor coverage, urgent and tourist care and providing a physician advisor to EMS. To fulfill the essential services, he recommended contracting with local physicians.

He also recommended having all ambulance-initiated emergency patients seen at the clinic, providing nursing and X-ray backup for emergencies and staging an EMS personnel at the clinic 24 hours a day "to evaluate and triage patients and telephone calls." He said the physician group contracted by the district would also be responsible for seeing walk-in urgent care patients during business hours and for providing the EMS Medical Advisor.

Eventually, he said, the plan would be for the physician group and all specialists, such as in cardiology and orthopedics, contracted by the district to lease space in the clinic building with district funds going to support indigent and sliding fee patients.

Any plan considered by the board, Knoll said must be filtered through legal and financial screens before being considered for action.

After Knoll's presentation, the audience and board members broke into two discussion groups - one on EMS and one on the Dr. Mary Fisher Medical Center.

On the EMS side, they discussed possible intergovernmental agreements with fire and police, minimum staffing levels and repair and maintenance on the emergency vehicles.

The clinic group hashed over the possibilities of Knoll's proposal, coming to the agreement that the goal, if the money could be worked out, would be to move ahead with moving a private, contracted group of physicians into the clinic as soon as possible.

Following the discussion, it was agreed that negotiations between the finance, budget and audit committee and local physicians should begin as soon as firm numbers could be pulled together. The board has set a special meeting for July 6 at 7 p.m. in the board room at Fire Station One on North Pagosa Boulevard.


Ten West Nile cases in state,

four human; none in county

By Tom Carosello

Staff Writer

Four and six.

According to the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, as of Wednesday these were the respective, statewide figures for the number of humans and horses that have tested positive for West Nile virus in 2004.

Expected to exact a greater toll than it did last year in the state - 2,947 human cases resulting in 63 deaths - West Nile is off to a surprisingly slow start this summer.

However, most state health officials attribute the lower infection rate this year to the relatively dry spring weather that affected much of the state.

In contrast, frequent precipitation last spring spurred mosquito breeding activity and led to an accelerated outbreak of West Nile.

No human cases were confirmed in Archuleta County in 2003 and, thus far, the same has held true for the county this year.

However, a few occurrences of the potentially-fatal virus were verified in the local equine population last year, and 14 human infections were reported in neighboring La Plata County.

Given these facts, and the likelihood recent rainfall in the region has rejuvenated mosquito activity, the chance for additional West Nile infections within county boundaries this year is almost a given.

"Culex tarsalis" is the scientific namesake for the mosquito species responsible for the transmission of West Nile Virus.

The breed has white scales around its leg joints, a line of white scales extending along the hind tibia and femur, and a series of dark, V-shaped spots on the underside of its abdomen.

It is medium-sized, and will breed in almost any source of stagnant water, including irrigated fields, old tires, hoof prints, tree holes and any pool of water lasting for more than a few days.

Culex tarsalis develops rapidly and produces multiple generations, especially during summer months, when egg-to-adult development can occur in four to 10 days. Without control efforts, local populations can explode in a short time.

To stem the spread of the virus, the county and the town of Pagosa Springs are continuing programs to help residents reduce the threat of West Nile.

For example, the town is offering a pair of free mosquito "dunks" to town residents. Each dunk (a small briquette) contains enough "Bti," a bacterium toxic only to mosquito or blackfly larva, to treat roughly 100 square feet of breeding habitat.

The dunks kill mosquitos when they are most vulnerable - in a larval stage and confined to shallow bodies of water.

According to Julie Jessen, administrative intern for the town, Bti is not toxic or pathogenic to birds or freshwater fish, but should not be applied directly to treated, finished drinking water reservoirs or receptacles.

Each dunk is effective for a 30-day period, and additional dunks can be purchased at local hardware stores.

To learn more about the town's program, stop by Town Hall and pick up a pamphlet or call Jessen at 264-4151, Ext. 226.

For situations requiring large-scale applications of larvicide, residents can seek the advice of the county weed and pest control department.

In addition to Bti and a number of informational brochures on mosquito control, the department also carries another effective larvicide, a product called Altosid.

For more information on different options available for large-scale mosquito control measures, contact Frank Ratliff, county weed and pest control director, at 264-6773.

Finally, local veterinarians are advising horse owners who have not yet begun to vaccinate their animals against West Nile to start the process immediately.


Federal health officials maintain the only way for humans to contract the virus is to be bitten by an infected Culex tarsalis mosquito.

Though vaccinations can protect horses against life-threatening illness resulting from the disease, no safeguards exist for humans.

While nothing can guarantee people living near mosquito habitat will not be bitten, the state health department recommends the following measures to lessen the risk of exposure to West Nile Virus:

- Apply insect repellent to exposed skin when outside. Repellents containing DEET are effective, but should be applied sparingly

- Limit outside activity around dawn and dusk

- Wear protective clothing such as lightweight long pants and long-sleeve shirts when outside

- Make sure that doors and windows have tight-fitting screens.

- Drain all standing water on your property, no matter how small the amount

- Stock permanent ponds or fountains with fish that eat mosquito larvae. Change water in birdbaths or wading pools and empty flowerpot saucers of standing water at least once a week

- Check around faucets and air conditioners and repair leaks or puddles that remain for several days

- Make sure roof gutters drain properly and remove any standing water under or around structures or on flat roofs

- Remove items that could collect water

- Eliminate seepage and standing water from cisterns, cesspools, septic tanks and animal watering tanks

- Prevent standing water in lawns and gardens, avoid over-watering.


According to the state health department, most people who are infected with West Nile Virus never exhibit symptoms or become ill.

For those who do become ill, symptoms usually occur 5-15 days after becoming infected and include fever, headache, body aches and occasionally skin rashes and swollen lymph nodes.

In serious cases, the disease can progress and cause encephalitis and/or meningitis. Symptoms associated with these more severe conditions include persistent headaches, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, tremors, muscle weakness and convulsions.

Persons with severe symptoms should seek medical attention immediately.

In horses, symptoms of West Nile Virus include fever, stumbling, lack of coordination, weakness of limbs and/or partial paralysis. Persons who believe their animals are infected with West Nile should consult with a veterinarian to determine if blood tests are needed.

For more information on West Nile Virus, call the San Juan Basin Health Department, Pagosa office at 264-2673, or visit the Internet at www.fightthebitecolorado.com or www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile.

 Inside The Sun

United Way will present 'Ride the Weminuche'

By Kathi DeClark

Special to The SUN

United Way of Southwest Colorado presents Ride the Weminuche 9 a.m. Saturday, July 31, at the historic Poma Ranch.

It will be the fourth annual trail ride. Bring the entire family and see the mountains on horseback.

It's an opportunity to spend the day outdoors observing the breathtaking views of the San Juan Mountains and the Weminuche Wilderness, watching the wildlife and raising money to support our community.

The day will include riding for three hours, a real chuck wagon lunch, a live auction, then out again for another two-hour adventure.

The Poma Ranch, is 27 miles up Piedra Road north of U.S. 160.

Rides will be guided, or unguided for the skilled rider. Fee is $55 if you bring your horse and $95 if you need to rent one. Registration includes lunch.

To reserve your spot and a horse, call today. You may charge by phone or mail your check and reservation needs to United Way, P.O. Box 4274, Pagosa Springs, CO. 81147.

For more information call Kathi DeClark at 946-2057.


Fourteen dogs earn 'Good Citizen' status

By Julie Paige

Special to The SUN

Fourteen dog owners are especially proud of their canine best friends, now that their dogs are certified as American Kennel Club Canine Good Citizens.

These companions proved their merit as they passed all 10 tests given June 26 during Pet Pride Day.

Good manners are essential when dogs are in public, and these dogs performed well as they obeyed commands necessary for good behavior in social situations.

Testing went smoothly in spite of runners, goats, llamas and people and their pets dressed in various costumes. The audience that gathered to watch the test enjoyed the enthusiasm displayed by both dog and owner as they worked as a team in each exercise.

Canine Good Citizenship evaluators awarded certificates to Shelly Johnson and her dogs Zoe and Phoebe; Courtney Spears and Thomas; Karen Thomas and Dana; Robin Schiro and Piñon; Linnea Merembeck and Bently; P. T. Condon and Codie; Loretta Lewis and Chanook; Sonja Hoie and Espen; Alice Robinson and Maggie; Cheryl Nelson and Kendal; and June Curran and Daisy Mae. Jan Nanus' Missy and Julie Paige's Taxi also earned their CGC certificates.

An unexpected prize was the presentation to each dog of a yellow and blue bandana emblazoned with the Canine Good Citizen logo. Fourteen dogs proudly sported their new bandanas around their necks as they posed for a group photo in the park.

The testing process was efficiently run with the help of Trish Waltrup as the "friendly stranger" and Gary McNaughton, Danney Cox, M. Stern, Joe Nanus and Ceil Reese as "crowd members" and dog holders.


County press release cites economic impact of Stevens Field

By Tom Carosello

Staff Writer

How many jobs in Pagosa Country are related to the existence of the Archuleta County Airport?

How will ongoing improvements to the county airport benefit "average" local citizens?

An informational press release issued Tuesday by Ken Fox, county airport manager, offers answers to these and other airport-related questions.

The release provides a statistical history of recent airport initiatives and cites figures outlining the degree of federal and state participation in airport projects, as well as a summary of the economic impact Stevens Field reportedly has on the community.

Fox supplied the information at the onset of a brief special session of the county board of commissioners in which the board ratified a letter of intent sent this week to eight hangar owners regarding the proposed process for hangar reconstruction and relocation associated with the current phase of improvements at the airport.

The following is a summary transcript of that information.

Currently, there are four federally-sponsored projects occurring at the county airport.

These airport improvement projects, or "AIPs," are part of the Federal Aviation Administration Airport Capital Improvement Program, which uses aviation-related monies to assist airports in upgrades, infrastructure, land acquisition and reconstruction, among other things.

These monies come from taxes on aviation fuel, passenger facilities charges, etc. and are appropriated by Congress.

Since September of 2000, the FAA has dedicated $13,617,900 to the county airport. The Colorado Department of Transportation, Division of Aeronautics, has a Discretionary Aviation Grant Program. Sponsors, such as Archuleta County, compete for these grant monies in order to supplement federal funds.

In the past, the FAA has contributed up to 90 percent of a given project's cost. Beginning this year, that contribution has increased to 95 percent. The sponsor is responsible for the balance, the remaining 5 percent.

The Colorado Discretionary Aviation Grant monies have historically been used to help the sponsor with its obligation, usually splitting the sponsor's match in half.

With this in mind, during the same time frame, September 2000 to present, the county has had $697,511 in state money dedicated to the airport. These monies are also aviation-related; they are not typical taxpayer funds.

In summary, between the federal and state contributions, the county has received total commitments of $14,307,618 for airport upgrades and improvements. The county's match has been $814,722.

With respect to revenues, the county owns the hangar that houses the fixed base operator (FBO) operations. Current rental income for this facility is nearly $10,000 per year.

The county receives a 5-cent per gallon fuel-flowage fee for every gallon of Avgas or jet fuel pumped.

There are several private hangars on the airfield. Each of these hangar owners is on a land-lease contract with the airport. These contracts generate over $32,000 per year.

Since these hangars are privately owned, the owners also pay personal property taxes on them. These taxes amounted to approximately $25,000 in county revenue this past year.

The State of Colorado Aeronautics Division has done an economic impact study for each airport in the state.

According to this independent, state-sponsored study, the county airport has a total economic impact on the community of over $23 million. Over 350 jobs in the community are at least partially a result of the airport being here.

As the county contributes to the development of the airport, more sources of revenue will be the result.

More hangars mean more land-lease income and more property tax income. More based aircraft means more fuel-related income, and more capacity means more visitors by air to the community, with the associated income derived from their presence.

There are other benefits derived from having an improved airport. The capability of emergency medical evacuation on fully-equipped jet aircraft leads the list.

As far as emergency fire fighting aircraft, the airport will be able to support the heavier and more efficient water/slurry tanker aircraft, as well as the helicopters it currently supports.

The airport will also have the capability to handle Federal Express and UPS aircraft when they decide to fly directly to Pagosa rather than Durango, followed by a road trip.


County clerk seeks polling place judges

By Richard Walter

Staff Writer

Archuleta County Clerk June Madrid needs precinct polling place judges for upcoming elections - especially Democrats.

Madrid said the county did not receive enough names from the caucus process from either party and said "we are in dire need of Democrat judges in some precincts."

Pay is approximately $110 for the day and all selected must attend one class that explains what you will do.

"The hours are long," Madrid said, "from 6 a.m. to approximately 9 p.m."

She said the election judges "are an intricate part of our election process and those who serve are an extremely important factor in upholding the integrity of the elections."

Judges are needed for the primary election Aug. 10 and the general election Nov. 2.

Madrid said, Colorado law used to require an equal number of Democrats and Republicans at each polling place at any election.

The law changed in the last couple of years in an attempt to make obtaining judges easier, she said. It now allows unaffiliated voters and qualifying high school students to serve as judges and for judges to serve in a precinct other than their own.

Other counties, Madrid said, see elections as a good opportunity for organizations to make money.

"If a church or group would like to supply judges for a polling place, the money could go to that organization or church," she said. "Students can participate to make money on their own or for a school function. In larger counties different companies provide the appropriate judges as do civic organizations."

"If anyone is interested," she said, "please consider this a plea for help."

Anyone willing to serve should call the clerk's office, 264-8350 or 264-8354, and leave their name and telephone number as soon as possible.

Voters are warned that judges will require identification of voters at the polling place, regardless of the voter's familiarity with place and process.

During the 2003 legislative session, the General Assembly of Colorado passed three bills requiring presentation of photo identification at your polling place before you are allowed to vote.

The most common form is a valid Colorado driver's license; however, any one of the following will also suffice:

- a current and valid Colorado Department of Revenue issued identification card

- a current and valid United States passport

- a current and valid employee identification card with a photograph of the eligible voter issued by any branch, department, agency or entity of the United States government or of this state or by any county, municipality, board authority or other political subdivision of this state

- a current and valid pilot's license for the eligible voter issued by the Federal Aviation Administration or other authorized agency of the United States

- a current and valid United States military identification card with a photograph of the eligible voter

- a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document that shows the name and address of the elector

- a Medicaid or Medicare card.

These acceptable forms of identification must show a Colorado address.

Even if you don't have one of those forms, you might be entitled to vote a provisional ballot at the polling place. A provisional ballot is a regular ballot but is placed in a larger envelope and requires the voter to fill in information and mark a reason why the provisional ballot is being requested.

The law does not allow these ballots to be counted on election night. They must be verified after the election, then counted and added to the election night totals.

Madrid said Colorado law was recently changed to conform to the Help America Vote Act of 2002 signed by President Bush.

It was designed to further secure the integrity of the election process, she said.

Secretary of State Donetta Davidson said, "Voters have unplugged from the election process because of what happened in the 2000 presidential election. We want voters to freely exercise their rights to vote. In order to do so, we want to make sure that when citizens of Colorado go to the polls, each has proper identification."

"By taking proper identification to the polling place," she added, "voters of Colorado ensure that our elections are accessible, accurate and accountable."


'Still too soon for monsoon' say forecasters

By Tom Carosello

Staff Writer

If it looks like monsoon, and acts like monsoon, it must be ...

"Pseudo monsoon," says Joe Ramey, a forecaster with the National Weather Service office in Grand Junction.

Though Pagosa Country was the recipient of afternoon rainfall totalling nearly three-quarters of an inch over the past week, "It's still too soon for monsoon," according to Ramey.

"The rain moving into Colorado from the south was subtropical moisture, but mainly transient," added Ramey.

"And unfortunately, we're starting to see some dry air move back in, which should push temperatures back to average by Saturday," said Ramey. "Though we'll still have a shot for some isolated showers (today)."

Most Pagosa residents aren't complaining, however; the six-hundredths of an inch of moisture that registered Friday was the first measurable rainfall in town since the first week of May.

And subsequent bouts of moisture pushed rain totals for June to near-normal levels, approximately .13 inches below the average mark of .86 inches.

But the chances for any rain delays during holiday festivities, said Ramey, are rather slim.

"Any rain over the weekend will most likely occur in the mountains," concluded Ramey. "Things should start to dry out at lower elevations."

According to Ramey, mostly-sunny conditions this morning will be replaced by increasing clouds by afternoon. The chance for scattered thunderstorms is listed at 20 percent. Highs today should hit the lower 80s; evening lows should register in the 40s.

Friday through Sunday call for morning sun and a mix of afternoon sun and clouds. Highs are predicted in the 80s along with lows in the mid-40s.

The forecasts for Monday and Tuesday indicate partly-cloudy skies, highs in the 75-85 range and lows in the 40s.

Wednesday's forecast predicts clear skies, highs near 80 and lows around 40.

The average high temperature recorded last week in Pagosa Springs was 73 degrees. The average low was 44. Moisture totals for the week, in town, amounted to approximately .73 inches.

The Pagosa Ranger District rates the area fire danger as "very high."

Fire restrictions went into effect June 21 in Zone 1, the lower-elevation zone, of the San Juan Public Lands.

The restrictions are Stage 1 restrictions which mean:

- campfires are limited to permanent fire rings or grates within developed campgrounds;

- smoking is limited to vehicles, buildings, or 3-ft wide areas cleared of vegetation;

- chain saws and other internal-combustion engines must have approved, working spark arresters;

- acetylene and other torches with an open flame may not be used; and,

- the use of explosives is prohibited.

For updates on federal fire restrictions, call the Pagosa Ranger District office at 264-2268.

San Juan River flow through town ranged from approximately 300 cubic feet per second to 530 cubic feet per second last week. The river's historic median flow for the week of July 1 equals roughly 600 cubic feet per second.


Missing hiker found after three days in high country

By Gary Grazda

Special to The SUN

It took 55 people, three dogs, six horses, two helicopters, an ambulance and more than 2,000 man hours to rescue one lost hiker June 25 after she was missing three days.

Vanessa Wilkerson, 34, of Pagosa Springs, embarked alone on a hike to Quartz Lake around noon Tuesday, June 22, telling friends she planned to return about 3 p.m. that day.

The following day at 5 p.m. the Archuleta County Sheriff's Department received a report from those friends that she was missing.

Deputy Richard Robinson and Dick Cole, supervising coordinator of Upper San Juan Search and Rescue, checked the Quartz Lake trailhead and found Wilkerson's auto parked there.

Cole then activated a network of volunteers and equipment on a mission to locate Wilkerson, already overdue more than 24 hours.

He described the trail as treacherous, with loose rock, dirt, snow and ice. At 8:45 p.m. he dispatched a hastily-formed search team of four hikers, including one EMT.

They found fresh footprints matching Wilkerson's size and type of boot and climbed to 12,000 feet in darkness before returning around 2:15 a.m. to a command post near the trailhead.

At 1:30 a.m. a search dog team confirmed the lost hiker's scent on the trail and at 15 minute intervals throughout the night Cole flashed emergency lights and sounded a siren in an effort to help guide the lost woman. Simultaneously, other emergency volunteers also worked the scene, notifying Air Force Rescue coordinating center in an effort to get military helicopter support. Additional calls were made for more ground searchers, horse teams and dog teams.

"Before daybreak June 24 we had a small army of searchers and other assets assembled in our effort to locate Wilkerson in the San Juan Wilderness," Cole said. Horse teams were dispatched up both the Quartz Creek and Blanco Basin Trails.

Cole said the search was complicated by the fact Wilkerson had signed in at the trailhead indicating another person was with her. Investigation later determined she was traveling alone.

Despite efforts utilizing all personnel and air assets including high angle rescue specialists, the subject was not located Thursday and was now 57 hours overdue.

Wilkerson was spotted at 10:45 a.m. Friday by Cole from a helicopter supplied for the search by High Altitude Army Aviation Training Sight in Eagle. She was found on Continental Divide Trail at an altitude of 12,600 feet. As the chopper passed over, Cole said, she waved a blue tarp she had found in the wilderness.

"I love you guys," she told Cole and the helicopter crew as they approached her. "We love you too, and that's why we do it," Cole replied.

The foursome flew to Stevens Field in Pagosa where an awaiting EMS crew examined the hiker and pronounced her in good health.

Wilkerson told rescuers she had stopped above Quartz Lake Tuesday afternoon after noticing it was getting dark and then, while trying to make her descent, lost the trail.

She said she stayed in a cave one night as she wandered the eastern slopes of Sand Mountain and the Continental Divide. She rationed the little food she had and obtained water from a waterfall during her four days in the wilderness.

Archuleta County Sheriff Tom Richards strongly urged all hikers not to travel alone in the wilderness and to always carry survival gear.

Cole described the operation as a logistically massive mission. He said Greg Oertel, who alternated shifts with him as incident commander, kept the search focused.

"It was a team effort," Cole said. "We couldn't have done it without the help we received from the Army National Guard, the Colorado Mounted Rescue horse teams, the dog search teams from Silverton, Dolores and New Mexico, as well as foot search teams from Taos, N.M., and especially our own dedicated members of Upper San Juan Search and Rescue."


Storms kindle numerous small fires in area

By Tess Noel Baker

Staff Writer

Recent thunderstorms have left behind much-needed rain and a lot of work for firefighters.

According to a news release from Pamella Wilson, fire information officer with the San Juan Public Lands Center, lightning started over 40 small fires over the weekend. Twenty-one more were reported Monday. Due to a quick response from firefighters all were contained at less than half an acre.

Eleven of the 21 fires occurred on Ute Mountain Ute lands south and east of Cortez, and ten were on private, Southern Ute and national forest lands. Pagosa Fire Protection District personnel responded to two fires Monday.

According to fire department reports, eight firefighters responded to a fire in Alpha Subdivision about 6:30 p.m. Lightning ignited a single tree which firefighters were able to extinguish. Twenty minutes later, nine firefighters responded to a brush fire reported three miles up County Road 600. A 10-foot square area of brush underneath a tree burned as a result of another lightning strike. That blaze was also stopped without incident.

Cooler weather, higher relative humidity and some precipitation have stalled the growth of three small fires burning on San Juan National Forest being managed under the Wildland Fire Use strategy.

"We will continue monitoring these fires. If the fire behavior changes, we can reassign resources to them," Allen Farnsworth, fire use manager for the Middle Fork fire 19 miles northwest of Pagosa Springs, said.

Several of the firefighting resources managing the 40-acre Middle Fork have been released because of the favorable weather conditions. Three-quarters of an inch of precipitation was recorded by a Remote Automatic Weather Station installed near the fire June 26. The lightning-caused fire started June 16 and continues to smolder in large fuels lying on the ground.

Eighteen miles northwest of Dolores, the Spring Creek Fire has grown to 23.5 acres and the Yearling Fire has grown to a little more than half an acre. These fires, burning in a dense spruce-fir forest, also continue to smolder and creep along.

"These fires are doing a great job of cleaning up a lot of debris on the forest floor," fire use manager Kevin Joseph said. A weather station will be installed near those fires soon.

A wildfire can be considered for Wildland Fire Use management if it is naturally caused, does not threaten populated areas and there are sufficient firefighting resources readily available. The goal of this strategy is to allow a natural fire regime to return to remote areas of national forest lands that have been deprived of fire for a century by all-out suppression tactics.

"While the recent moisture has kept these fires and others from spreading, the rains have been widespread and primarily at the higher elevations," said Farnsworth. "Fire restrictions are in place at the lower elevations because the moisture content in the fuels is still critically low, so folks should continue to be really careful with fire," he said.

Call 911 or Durango Interagency Dispatch at 385-1324 to report a possible fire.




Ranger district sets tour of two

proposed fuel-reduction sites

Pagosa Ranger District will host a field trip to two proposed fuel reduction projects - Hatcher and Four Mile - starting 9 a.m. July 10 from district offices at 180 Pagosa St.

Both projects are designed to reduce shrubs and small trees including Gambel oak, ponderosa pine, white fir, and Douglas-fir that serve as "ladder fuels" by carrying a fire from the ground up to the tree crowns.

There is also a small amount of Rocky Mountain juniper and piñon pine that will be treated. The goal is to reduce the threat of a high-severity fire threatening nearby homes in the wildland-urban interface.

The proposed Hatcher project is located approximately 9 miles northwest of Pagosa Springs via Piedra Road (County Road 600). The primary focus will be mowing and shredding understory shrubs and small trees from ponderosa pine forests on 430 acres.

The 970-acre proposed Four Mile project is located about 8 miles northwest of Pagosa Springs via Plumtaw Road (FS 634) or 13 miles via Jack's Pasture Road (FS 181). The proposal calls for mechanically mowing and shredding Gambel oak and other shrubs up to 6 inches in diameter at the base; however a few larger white fir or Douglas-fir trees may be cut for forest health purposes.

In both projects, some of the steeper slopes may be treated by hand with chainsaws. No pre-settlement trees will be removed.

The field trip is expected to last 3-4 hours. Those unable to attend but who would like to comment on the proposed projects, should send comments to District Ranger, PO Box 310, Pagosa Springs, CO 81147. Comment period ends July 16.

For more information call the Pagosa Ranger district at 264-2268.


DOW officer will present 'Bear Basics' Saturday

Doug Purcell, district wildlife manager for Colorado Division of Wildlife will do an outdoor presentation on Bear Basics at 7 p.m. Saturday, July 3.

The event will be at Wolf Creek Campground on West Fork Road (Forest Road 648).

Bears are active this year, so whether you live in the Pagosa Springs area or are planning to camp out you will find this program of interest and pertinent. Bring a chair and flashlight and dress warmly.

The program is sponsored by Colorado Division of Wildlife and the San Juan National Forest.

For information about the program, contact Phyllis Decker at 264-1528.

For information about bears or other wildlife concerns, contact the Division of Wildlife office in Durango at 247-0855.


Think 'red' when fishing the Fourth

By Tom Carosello

Staff Writer

Fourth of July celebrations have always entailed myriad displays of red, white and blue.

However, Pagosa Country anglers looking for ways to up their odds at local trout fisheries over the holiday weekend may want to pay special attention to the first color listed in that trio.

According to extensive research, trout are more likely to strike lures that feature red or reddish tones than those that do not.

Research also indicates trout are partial to red and pale colors rather than darker hues, faster presentations as opposed to slower retrieves, "straight and rectangular over globular shape, and large over smaller size."

"These triggers should all be considerations in lure and fly designs," says noted trout expert Bernie Taylor in a recent report composed for ESPN Outdoors.

"Incorporate touches of red at strategic points where there is a hook, but don't make the mistake of giving them too much of a good thing," adds Taylor.

"A red can have a negative effect when the fish are not in an aggressive mode," he concludes.

Though slightly off color due to recent rains, most area tributaries are fishing well and, barring additional rainfall, will clear significantly over the weekend.

The following is a breakdown of conditions at some regional fishing hotspots:

- San Juan River (through town) - Stocked recently. Flow is clearing, averaging roughly 400 cubic feet per second. Anglers using spinners, flies, marabou jigs and streamers are reporting good catches of rainbows along with a few browns. From junction of U.S. 160 and U.S. 84 through town to Apache Street, daily bag limit for trout is two fish

- Echo Lake - Largemouth bass, crappie, sunfish and perch are being taken on live bait, ultralight jigs and small plastics. Trout are hitting early and late on flies, marabou jigs, spinners, fluorescent Z-Rays, salmon eggs, nightcrawlers and PowerBait. All bass between 12-15 inches must be released immediately; daily bag for yellow perch is unlimited, statewide limits apply to all other species

- Williams Creek Reservoir - Fishing for rainbow, cutthroat and brook trout is reportedly good in the early morning and late afternoon with live bait, jigs in orange and red, and spinners in gold, silver and fluorescents. Kokanee salmon are apparently moving deep, but some anglers are reporting success near the inlet

- Navajo Reservoir - Lake elevation is holding at approximately 6,032 feet and water temperature is 64 degrees. Catfish are biting on chicken liver or gizzards. Northern pike are hitting crankbaits. Both species are active at Arboles Point, Windsurf Beach and Bancos Canyon. Crappie are starting to bite in Bancos Canyon and La Jara Canyon

- Big Meadows Reservoir - Fishing for rainbow and brook trout is good near the inlets and steady in the main lake body. Successful anglers are using PowerBait, flies and brightly-colored spinners

- Piedra River - Flow has a greenish tint, averaging 350 cubic feet per second. Browns and rainbows are the predominant catch and are hitting flies, streamers and flashy spinners. Fishing is restricted to the use of artificial flies and lures only; daily bag limit and possession limit for trout is two fish

- Fourmile Creek - Flow is clear and falling. Brook trout, cutthroat and a few rainbows and browns are hitting attractor-pattern flies and lightweight spinners

- Williams Creek - Water near the campgrounds is getting heavy pressure, but the creek is nearly clear and fishing well along its entirety. Flies and small spinners are working well for brookies, cutthroats, browns and rainbows near the dam. Browns and rainbows are the main catch in the lower stretches.


When the world closes in, a walk in the woods is good therapy

By Chuck McGuire

SUN Columnist

The sun was low in the western sky, and long shadows fell upon us from the towering aspens nearby. A late summer thunderstorm had drenched the land an hour earlier, and as the last great cumulus still hovered over the eastern horizon, a light sprinkle dripped from the leaves and branches above, cleansing the forest and all that lay within. With the coming of twilight, robins caroled softly around us, and a lone raven proclaimed a low croonk somewhere over a distant hill. The air was cool and still, and as the quiet of evening settled over the landscape, the strain of a long day on the road gradually lifted.

We had arrived at the cabin on a four-day hiatus, and my nephew, Mike, was coping with a failed relationship and the weight of considerable police work in the city he left behind. He felt beaten and tired, and the ardent enthusiasm, which typically characterizes his approach to everything in life, was noticeably absent. It had been a difficult few months for him, but now it was time to let go, if only for a few days.

Slumber came early that first night as we settled in to the comfort of our snug little cottage and its warm glowing fireplace. Dozens of elk were in the meadow out front, and with the seasonal rut beginning in earnest, we happily lay in our bunks, as their persistent bugling quickly lulled us to sleep.

The next morning, under a blue cloudless sky, the air was calm and crisp on the deck, where we sat sipping the day's first cup of coffee. The elk had temporarily withdrawn to relative security in the surrounding forest, but a small flock of tiny songbirds fluttered about in the aspens overhead, drawing our attention to the trees and the increasing shades of gold and orange that signaled an impending change of season. A long night's respite had certainly revived us, and Mike appeared rested and fresh. At once, he cheerfully spoke of exploration and long hikes in the woods.

I watched my nephew over the next couple of days, as the warm sunshine and fresh mountain air helped rejuvenate his spirit. Our many walks in the mixed aspen and pine forest, and over the wheat-colored, tall-grass meadows, slowly restored his perspective, and peace of mind steadily returned. His uncanny eye for spotting wildlife, whether a stout and motionless mule deer buck, or a watchful marmot sunbathing on a rock, brought enormous excitement, and temporarily freed him from the trials and trepidation of a more demanding life back home.

Of course, Mike ultimately returned to the city and the often arduous undertaking of public servant. His heartache had not gone away, that takes considerably more time. But the remote woodlands and majestic mountain vistas of the cabin seemed to put things in order for him, and as he faced an ever-mounting workload waiting at the office, he did so readily, and with renewed interest.

As a former outfitter and back-country guide over most of the past two decades, I've seen many city dwellers respond to time in the wilds much the same as Mike. Nearly all were highly successful in their chosen profession, and some arrived still talking of work, or checking for messages on their cell phone. Depending on the complexity of their lives, it often took a full day or more, before a sense of quiet and freedom from responsibility set in, inevitably becoming apparent in their outward demeanor.

As different as people really are, the end result was nearly always the same. By journey's end, none could believe how quickly time passed, and many who came for sheer recreation, instead, gained true spiritual lift.

Sigurd F. Olson was one of the most important environmentalists of the twentieth century, and as a bestselling author and guide in the boundary waters of northern Minnesota and southern Ontario for many years, he came to realize the value of wilderness to the American people in the year following World War II. An excerpt of an article he wrote in 1944 reads, "Wilderness to the people of America is a spiritual necessity, an antidote to the high pressure of modern life, a means of regaining serenity and equilibrium."

Mr. Olson was decades ahead of his time, and as one who so dearly loved the out-of-doors himself, he not only fought to preserve his beloved Quetico-Superior country of the great north woods, but he shared it quite literally with many who traveled there, and figuratively with anyone attending his lectures or reading his many fine articles and books on the subject.

In another passage of that same article, he wrote, "I have found that people go to the wilderness for many things, but the most important of these is perspective. They may think they go for the fishing or the scenery or companionship, but in reality it is something far deeper. They go to the wilderness for the good of their souls."

As a devoted flyfisher, I am frequently asked where the "big" fish are. When I describe the so called "quality waters" of the San Juan River below Navajo Reservoir, people are often surprised to find that it's actually been many years since I've fished there. In spite of overcrowding and its arid surroundings, they wonder, if the fishing is so good, why am I not there regularly, particularly when it's little more than an hour from home.

For those who have to ask, any explanation is usually insufficient. But for an ever-increasing number, an indulgent smile and casual acquiesce are the results when I suggest, "For me, the taking of fish, or even the act of fishing, isn't so terribly important, it's where I go to do it that really matters."

As Robert Traver wrote in his "Testament Of A Fisherman," "I fish because I love to; because I love the environs where trout are found, which are invariably beautiful, and hate the environs where crowds of people are found, which are invariably ugly "


Hike, lunch and dine with a llama July 11

The San Juan Mountains Association in conjunction with San Juan Public Lands, Durango Mountain Resort, and Lois the Llama Lady will host, "Hike, Lunch and Wine with a Llama."

This is an interpretive hike where participants will learn about wildflowers, trees, birds and geology of the area.

The llama will carry lunches and wine for a midday picnic. The hike will take place 9:30 a.m.-4 p.m. Sunday, July 11, at Durango Mountain Resort.

Cost is $30 per person or $50 per couple.

Call 385-1210 by July 8 to register.


Local and regional meetings deal with coalbed methane Draft EIS

The public will have the opportunity to learn about and comment on the Northern San Juan Basin Coalbed Methane Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) at public involvement meetings hosted by the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service this summer.

The local meeting will be held Tuesday, July 20, 4-7 p.m., at Archuleta County Fairgrounds Extension building, 344 U.S. 84.

Additional public meetings in August will be sponsored by a subcommittee of the BLM Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council (RAC), which advises the Secretary of the Interior on public land issues in southwestern Colorado.

Public comments may be presented orally or in writing to the subcommittee. The RAC-sponsored meetings will be:

- Wednesday, Aug. 11, 6-9 p.m., Bayfield High School Cafetorium

- Tuesday, Aug. 17, 6-9 p.m., Archuleta County Fairgrounds Extension building, 344 U.S. 84, Pagosa Springs

- Thursday, Aug. 19, 6-9 p.m., San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett Court, Durango

The Draft EIS studies a proposal by six energy companies to develop approximately 300 new coalbed methane wells on federal lands in the Northern San Juan Basin of southwestern Colorado.

The analysis area encompasses 125,000 acres north of the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata and Archuleta counties. Although the EIS considers cumulative effects from development on private lands, it will make no decisions involving private property.

CD copies of the Draft EIS are available at the San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett Court, Durango, 247-4874, and Columbine Public Lands Office, 367 Pearl Street, Bayfield, (970) 884-2512. The large two-volume document is also available for review at these offices. Hard copies are available upon request, but are very costly to produce.

The Draft EIS may also be viewed on the Web: www.fs.fed.us/r2/sanjuan or www.nsjb-eis.org.

Written public comments will be accepted until Sep. 13, 2004, and can be mailed to Northern San Juan Basin CBM EIS, USDA FS Content AnalysisTeam, P.O. Box 221150, Salt Lake City, UT 84122. Comments may also be e-mailed to: nbasin-cbm-eis@fs.fed.us.

For more information, contact Walt Brown or Jim Powers at (970) 385-1304.



Flag's lament

Dear Editor:

Following you will find a piece on the American flag and its treatment in parades.

I believe it particularly appropriate at this time:

"Some people call me Old Glory, others call me the Star Spangled Banner. But whatever they call me, I am your flag, the flag of the United States of America. Something has been bothering me, so I thought I might talk it over with you.

"I remember some time ago people lined up on both sides of the street to watch me parade and naturally, I was always there, proudly waving in the breeze.

"When your daddy saw me coming, he immediately removed his hat and placed it over his heart. Remember? And you, I remember you standing there straight as a soldier. You didn't have a hat but you were giving me the right salute.

"Remember your little sister? Not to be outdone, she was saluting the same as you, with her hand over her heart. Remember? What happened? I'm still the same old flag. Oh, I have added a few more stars since you were a boy, and a lot more blood has been shed since those parades of long ago.

"But I don't feel as proud as I used to. When I come down your street, you just stand there with your hands in your pockets. I may get a small glance, but then you look away.

"I see the children running around and shouting. They don't seem to know who I am. I saw one man take off his hat and look around. He didn't see anybody else with his hat off so he quickly put his back on.

"Is it a sin to be patriotic any more? Have you forgotten what I stand for and where I've been? Anzio, Normandy, Omaha Beach, Guadalcanal, Korea, Vietnam, Panama, Granada and the Gulf?

"Take a look at the Memorial Honor Rolls sometime. Take a look at the names of those who never came back in order to keep this nation free! One Nation Under God. When you salute me, you are actually saluting them.

"Well, it won't be long until I'll be coming down your street again. So, when you see me, stand straight, place your right hand over your heart. I'll salute you waving back, and I'll know that you remember."

Donald H. Bartlett

Citizen initiative

Dear Editor:

CLUB 20 - the coalition of individuals, businesses and local governments in Colorado's 22 western counties - supports limited changes to Colorado's constitutional fiscal constraints: TABOR and the K-12 funding mandate, "Amendment 23."

These two constitutional mandates have had, and will continue to have, huge impacts on the ability of our state and local governments to provide basic services. A23 mandates that the state continue to spend an increasing percent of it's declining budget on K-12 education, and TABOR limits both the ability of the government to spend and grow.

While CLUB 20 has long supported the basic tenets of TABOR, we recognize the TABOR limits, coupled with the mandated spending requirements of A23 and the unprecedented recession which we have just experienced, has created a fiscal stranglehold on both our local and state governments.

As noted in the past, CLUB 20 is part of a citizen's coalition that supports a ballot initiative to make minor amendments to both TABOR and Amendment 23. I'd like to address a couple of points about this initiative that have been raised recently:

1) The citizen's initiative will allow local and state government services to recover as the economy recovers.

While it was the recession and not TABOR that created the unprecedented revenue shortfall that our state has experienced in the past two years, it is TABOR that will prevent state and local government services (from higher education to highways) from recovering along with the economy. In January of next year, the stock market will be up, unemployment will be down, and yet our state Legislature will be struggling with the challenge of cutting our state budget by another $250 million as a result of TABOR.

2) The citizen's initiative does not gut TABOR and it does not ignore Amendment 23; it addresses both issues in a reasonable and balanced approach.

While TABOR restricts our state's ability to recover from the recession, Amendment 23 has hamstrung our elected representatives' ability to deal with these declining revenues. It is necessary that BOTH of these measures be amended if we are to restore the vitality of our state. The citizen's initiative preserves the basic tenets of TABOR and A23, while providing state and local governments the ability to maintain and restore essential services.

It was CLUB 20's desire that the legislature pass a referendum to put this important issue before the voters and thereby avoid the need for any citizen's initiative. Unfortunately, despite their best efforts and weeks of negotiations during the regular session, the legislature was unsuccessful in passing such a measure. It is our continued hope that, under the able leadership of Governor Owens, the Legislature can come together in a special session this summer and craft such a bi-partisan solution to this fiscal challenge. When and if that happens, CLUB 20 will be at the front of the line supporting such a referendum.

Reeves Brown

CLUB 20 Executive Director

Visitor vs. resident

Dear Editor:

Richard Brown's letter of June 10 supporting the proposed development at Wolf Creek reveals an all too common perspective: visitor versus resident.

As a resident of the area since 1988, I see the situation differently. In fact, Mr. Brown makes the case quite well for why such ill-conceived development should not occur.

Mr. Brown's argument that growth is inherently good is one of the great dangers in current economic theory. We who live here have seen some good growth and some not so good. Growth in size of a community is not always positive, especially when it occurs without intelligent planning. He should know this, as his home of Albuquerque is extremely challenged by growth and concerns with water supply, impacts on sacred Native lands, and so on.

Numerous "Cost of Community Services" studies by American Farmland Trust have shown that far-flung developments, such as the proposed Village at Wolf Creek, invariably end up costing communities far more than the income they produce via tax dollars. In Archuleta County's case, we would not even receive the tax income from such development, but would bear much of the burden and lost revenue to visitor lodging and retail sales, should the development ever actually be built.

Mr. Brown's argument about the mootness of water and sewage concerns likewise reveals that he is not in touch with the realities of mountain living. Given the extreme drought conditions of the last two years and more, we must be concerned about water supply. How the developers propose to access, store, and deliver water and then process the sewage waste of approximately 8,000 residents at nearly 11,000-foot altitude is rightfully a concern of all who live here. Nature, as the drought has explicitly revealed, cannot always be engineered to accommodate the whims and profit margins of human beings.

Finally, to accuse "most people" of "hating change," especially environmentalists, is an ad hominem attack, rather than addressing the real pros and cons of a development of that enormous size (10 times the number of units ever conceived in the original land trade with the U.S. Forest Service), environmental impact, and economic effect.

Most environmentalists I know, myself included, are advocates for positive change for our community - change toward greater sustainability in terms of ecological health that provides the basis for economic stability and prosperity (which the proposed development and ever-increasing dependence upon recreational economy would not necessarily produce), and a sense of community (which having more visitors isolated from the towns in the valleys would not engender.)

Yes, we share the public lands with the rest of the nation. Thus, those of us who reside here have the responsibility to attend to their well-being. In this case, it means requiring that the full impacts of any proposed development by visitors be examined and decided upon with the full participation of the communities that will be impacted and on behalf of the rest of the nation that cares about the health of the commons.

Rio de la Vista

Tree ordinance

Dear Editor:

In response to the article in last week's paper regarding a possible tree conservation ordinance, the planning commission commented on two examples of trees left in place on developed areas.

The old growth trees in front of the Pagosa Lodge also had to endure the installation of a sprinkler system. The root system of ponderosa pine is quite shallow; removal of roots has a tendency to leave the tree with no means of absorbing water and nutrients.

Also, being a high desert species, they don't thrive well when standing in water meant to keep Kentucky blue grass nice and green. The two species hardly coexist in nature.

Regarding the Wells Fargo trees, I believe there was extensive blasting in that whole corridor for utility lines. Once again, a prime example of root loss.

Perhaps developers should consider a park area, or at least instigate tree preservation programs that are available, and save these trees that have endured logging, lightning and wind for the last 100 years or so.

Then maybe we can preserve the beauty of our corridor for generations to come.

I don't necessarily advocate that we have an ordinance to require individuals to never cut any trees down, only consider the alternatives to preserve an important resource that takes hundreds of years to replace.

Summer Phillips-Pierce

Tax breaks

Dear Editor:

Both presidential candidates have helped create a very one-sided tax structure. Should either one be president?

Both candidates have made condos tax deductions while putting the tax load on low-income families.

Don Reid


Dear Editor:

On a visit to Washington, D.C., while walking up the steps of the Capitol Building, which houses the Supreme Court, I couldn't help but observe that near the top of he building there is a row of the world's lawgivers and each one is facing a conspicuous figure in the middle who is facing forward, with a frontal view. That figure is Moses with the Ten Commandments.

As you enter the Supreme Court courtroom, you will notice that the two huge oak doors have the Ten Commandments engraved on the lower portion of each door. Sitting inside the courtroom, you can see the wall, right above where the Supreme Court judges sit, where there is another striking display of the Ten Commandments.

Touring around Washington, D.C. you will find that there are Bible verses etched in stone on every federal building and monument in the district. Just from a curiosity standpoint - wonder why?

James Madison, the fourth president, known as "The Father of Our Constitution," made the following statement: "We have staked the whole of all our political institutions upon the capacity of mankind for self-government, upon the capacity of each and all of us to govern ourselves, to control ourselves, to sustain ourselves according to the Ten Commandments of God."

Patrick Henry, that patriot and Founding Father of our country said, "It cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often that this great nation was founded not by religionists but by Christians, not on religions but on the Gospel of Jesus Christ."

Every session of Congress begins with a prayer by a paid preacher, whose salary has been paid by taxpayers since 1777.

Fifty-two of the 55 founders of the Constitution were members of the established orthodox churches of the colonies.

Thomas Jefferson openly worried that the courts would overstep their authority and instead of interpreting the law would begin making law ... an oligarchy ... the rule of few over many.

The very first Supreme Court Justice, John Jay, said, "Americans should select and prefer Christians as their rulers."

How, then, have we gotten to the point that everything we have done for 228 years in this country is now suddenly wrong and unconstitutional?

Causes one to ponder if the citizens of our great country that are card carrying disciples of the unreasoning ACLU have any motive to even celebrate the Fourth of July.

Have a memorable holiday, America.

Jim Sawicki

Bush mystifies

Dear Editor:

There are many intelligent, thoughtful citizens in this country who champion President Bush and his policies. I am not among them.

I think I understand the reasoning underlying this support, at least in regard to the economy and the environment, although I believe it is fallacious reasoning that ignores long term effects for short-term benefits.

I cannot, however, understand this support when his policies on foreign/international relations and the actions that flow therefrom are considered.

I imagine that the majority of Bush supporters were outraged at President Clinton's sexual behavior in the White House and, more importantly, his lying about it to the American people. I would think most were calling for his impeachment.

Thus, it is surprising that I hear no hint of criticism of President Bush for the lies or, at the very least, strongly misleading statements he has made about why we should invade Iraq. Probably the most damaging of these statements, repeated so often that close to 80 percent of the population believed it, was that Saddam Hussein was involved in the tragedy of Sept. 11, 2001. However, there has never been any credible evidence that there was any such involvement and, I believe, there was a concerted effort to find it.

Another statement was that Saddam had tried to buy uranium for his nuclear weapons program from Niger. Admittedly, he said this information came from the British. However, it was known at the time that the papers purporting this information were false.

These statements were two very strong justifications for invading Iraq and, I believe, went a long way in leading the Congress and the American people to support the war. If the president knew these statements were false, he consciously misled the American people. If he did not know, his advisors should have been summarily sacked.

There was a great effort to impeach President Clinton for lying about his unsavory, salacious acts in the White House, although no lasting damage was done to either the country or the world by these lies. In fact the only real outcome was embarrassment to the country and certain individuals and that during this time the government was tied up in the great brouhaha.

If President Clinton deserved impeachment, how is it possible to support President Bush and want him to be reelected? His statements, at a minimum consciously misleading, helped lead us into the mess we now find ourselves, and the deaths of hundreds of Americans and thousands of Iraqis. Certainly, these are much more serious consequences than some embarrassment.

I admit to being completely mystified why Clinton should have been impeached and Bush reelected. I imagine I will be enlightened by next week's Letters.

Ted Stampfer



Community News

Senior News

Watch for senior center folks in the holiday parade

By Musetta Wollenweber

Special to The SUN

Patty Tillerson will be here Friday, July 2, to check blood pressures for free. Come in and get yours checked.

Andy Fautheree will also be here that day to assist with veteran's benefits.

The Silver Foxes Den will be closed July 5 for the holiday, but we will be in the Fourth of July parade, so look for our bus. See you July 6.

And you'd better be here July 6 or you will miss the Seeds of Learning Kids. They come at 11:45 a.m. and sing up a storm, then give everyone hugs.

Only one in 20 people regularly give blood. For every person in need of blood, the simple act of giving is heroic. Be a hero at the Den and give blood Thursday, July 8, from 12:30 to 4 p.m. To schedule an appointment, call 264-2167.

Yet another reason to lose excess weight: Improved immune function. You know that knocking off even as few as 5 or 10 extra pounds has the potential to significantly reduce blood cholesterol. Now researchers at Tufts have found that the same weight loss that lowers cholesterol levels also appears to help keep the immune system running at its best.

Earlier studies also showed a link between high cholesterol, often matched with excess weight, and compromised immunity. The takeaway message, particularly for older adults with elevated cholesterol who may be carrying a few extra pounds: Making some modest dietary changes may not only reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease but could also potentially boost the ability to fight other illnesses. (Excerpted from Tufts University Health and Nutrition Letter.)

Our trip to Durango will be Thursday, July 8. Signup is in the lounge and the suggested donation for seniors is $10. If Durango doesn't interest you, you could come in Thursday for our blood drive 12:30-4 p.m. Give blood or go shop - it's nice to have a choice.

We had our first game day this month and not many people showed up. We will try it again next month, July 22, 1-3 p.m. We have prizes for bingo and lots of other board and card games available.

We are pleased to have John Weiss here July 9 to tell us all the activities scheduled for Navajo State Park. They have a lot of fun lake events, so be sure to come in and find out what's going on at Navajo. Our senior board meeting at 1 p.m. the same day in the dining room. All seniors are welcome to attend.

Importance of water

Human beings can survive about five weeks without food, but without water, life would end in three to five days.

A drop in the body's water content causes a decline in blood volume, triggering the brain's thirst center to demand a drink.

If you don't drink enough, toxins build up in the system causing headaches.

Lack of water is also responsible for bowel and bladder, anxiety attacks, food intolerance, heartburn, muscle pains and poor muscle tone, colitis pain, hot flashes, excess body fat, water retention and many other disorders. Water is especially important for people who have musculoskeletal problems such as arthritis because it lubricates the joints.

Drinking plenty of quality water can slow the aging process, and can prevent or improve kidney stones, constipation, arteriosclerosis, obesity, glaucoma, cataracts, diabetes, hypoglycemia. Drink half your weight in fluid ounces a day. For example: if you weigh 150 pounds, you need to drink at least 75 ounces of quality water a day. (Researched by Bev Brown.)


Friday, July 2 - Qi Gong. 10 a.m.; blood pressure check, 11; veteran's benefits, noon

Monday, July 5 - Center closed

Tuesday, July 6 - Yoga in Motion, 10 a.m.; advanced computer class, 10:30; massage, 1 a.m.-1 p.m.; Seeds of Learning kids sing, 11:45

Wednesday, July 7 - Wed 10:30 Beginning computer, 10:30 a.m.; Canasta, 1 p.m.

Thursday, July 8 - Durango trip; blood drive at the senior center

Friday, July 9 - Qi Gong, 10 a.m.; Navajo State Park talk with John Weiss, 11; senior board meeting, 1 .m.


Friday, July 2 - Hot turkey sandwich, mashed potatoes/gravy, cranberry sauce, green beans, blueberries, strawberries and topping

Monday, July 5 - Center closed

Tuesday, July 6 - Baked ham dinner with sweet potatoes, apples, green beans, mushrooms, roll and vanilla pudding

Wednesday, July 7 - Sole Almondine, rice/walnut salad, carrots, onion roll, orange sections and chocolate pudding

Friday, July 9 - BBQ chicken breast, corn on the cob, poppy seed coleslaw, whole wheat roll and fresh fruit cup.


Library News

Reading program ending; party is July 7

By Lenore Bright

SUN Columnist

The reading program is over this Saturday and the party will be Wednesday at the South Pagosa Park on 8th Street. All trails lead there.

Everyone who entered this year's program is a winner by virtue of coming to Barb Draper's programs.

It was such fun last week to see the children lined up for a pony ride from the good folks at LASSO. Every Tuesday and Friday, Barb and her volunteers have provided unusual, educational and entertaining programs. We are so fortunate to have this kind of support in our community.

The children who participated will go on to better work in school because they have had fun in this summer learning environment. Our thanks to all who gave of their time and talents to make this a special summer reading program.

All about LASSO

We live in "horse country." I imagine everyone at one time or another wanted to have their very own pony. The folks at LASSO put out a brochure that asks, "You have purchased a horse. You want to take it home. What now?"

Did you know that an average saddle horse weighing 1,000 pounds will eat approximately 17 to 22 pounds of feed per day? A horse needs eight to 10 gallons of water per day.

Do you know what kind of horse food will prevent boredom? Did you know you have to file their teeth and trim their hooves every year and that they have to be de-wormed several times a year?

After reading the LASSO brochure, I'm glad my neighbors have horses so I can give the horses an occasional carrot. And I appreciate it that they keep their property clean of manure and control the flies and insects.

I'm also glad that LASSO exists to keep an eye out for people who mistreat horses. LASSO stands for "Large Animal Support Southwestern Slope Organization." Their purpose is to assist in the survival, safety, and humane treatment of hoofed animals, with the objective of educating animal owners regarding proper feeding, housing and care.

If you are thinking about getting a horse, or want to learn more about LASSO, come by the library and pick up a brochure, or call them at 264-0095.

Pagosa Country geology

If you have had the opportunity to take a geology tour with Glenn Raby, you know how interesting this subject can be.

Glenn has compiled a power point tour on a CD entitled, "From the Bottom of the Ocean to the Top of the World and Everything in Between." Glenn has donated one to the library. You may check the CD out and enjoy the tour.

Glenn's mineral collection is now on permanent loan to the San Juan Historical Society Museum. He keeps busy with Chimney Rock along with his other Forest Service roles. Glenn also finds time to help us as a trustee of the library district. He has just been appointed to his final five-year term in this capacity.

Thanks Glenn for all you do for our community.

Wildlife company

Snakes in Colorado are active from late spring through fall. May and June are the best times to see them. They must retreat from both cold and hot, and are most active on warm days and evenings. On warm evenings, snakes often warm themselves on little-traveled country roads.

Few people are neutral on snakes. Even chimps and gorillas exhibit a fear of snakes. The tendency to fear snakes is learned early in childhood through scary stories and negative images in movies and TV. We are either frightened or fascinated by them depending upon our conditioning. "Ophidiophobia," is the term for fear of snakes.

Few people know that all snakes in Colorado, except the prairie rattlesnake, are nongame species and protected by law. It is illegal to kill them or take any for barter, sale or any commercial purpose.

It is also illegal to release a nonnative snake in the wild, and natives can be returned to the wild only within 10 miles of where they were captured.

Some snakes can live as high as 11,000 feet. The western rattlesnake has been found up to an elevation of 9,500 feet. Whether you are fascinated, or frightened, our ecosystem would not work without them.

Just be careful as there are rattlesnakes in the county, and when it is very dry they are known to seek out water near homes.

Fourth of July

The library will be closed Saturday for the holiday. Enjoy the parade.


Thanks to Bill and Joan Seielstad for a donation to the building fund in memory of Sue Gast. And we thank the following for materials: Terry Carter, Vicki Ward, David Hicks, Joe Nanus, Beverly Johnson, and Mr. and Mrs. C. J. Hannah.


Chamber News

Park to Park Arts and Crafts

kicks off holiday on Riverwalk

By Sally Hamiester

SUN Columnist

The Park to Park Arts and Crafts Festival begins at 9 a.m. Friday opening the big July 4 party in Pagosa and continues on until 4 p.m. Sunday.

Doug has assembled an amazing variety of folks who will be displaying and selling their handmade wares in both Town and Centennial parks.

It is always such a treat to walk up and down the aisles at this festival seeing all the unique and unusual items on display in the booths. I consistently receive raves about the things I purchase and send as gifts from this show, and I do a significant piece of my Christmas shopping there each year. If you are looking for original wares, don't miss this show.

You still have time to register your entry in the wonderful Rotary "Pagosa Heritage" parade with great prizes awarded to winners in categories that include commercial, nonprofit and service groups, individuals and families, youth groups and musical. I'm sure you can easily fit into one of those categories and stand to win some dough if your group wins.

Fill out your form right away or you will automatically be placed at the end of the line. The parade will be held Saturday, July 3, beginning at 10 a.m. with line-up assignments, late registration and any final decorating taking place in the high school parking lot beginning at 9 a.m. The parade will begin promptly at 10 a.m. with entry onto U.S. 160 from 8th Street.

Rotary respectfully requests that water guns and air horns stay at home and that parade participants do not throw candy or anything at all from the floats.

Please check The SUN for all the details about the Red Ryder Rodeo and Western Heritage Arena Benefit Dance at the Fairgrounds and Extension building, the Quilt Fest at the Mamie Lynch Gymnasium and the carnival across from Town Park.

Our fabulous Pagosa Hot Strings will once again grace us with their presence and music at the concert Sunday evening beginning at 7 p.m. until the fireworks begin at dusk. This is an annual huge treat for all of us when our "Strings" come together and perform for us, and I look forward to it all year.

Free games and activities will begin at 4 p.m. and Hopi dancers at 6 p.m. The Hot Strings will perform from 7-9 p.m. and the fireworks will begin at dusk. After the fireworks, plan to stay and dance to the music of the Jonny Mogambo Band until midnight. Remember that this year's games, picnic, vendors, concert and fireworks will be held downtown at the sports complex off 5th Street.

Clearly, you will need several days to recuperate from the long July 4 weekend, but you are sure to have a fabulous time with all the offerings.

Adopt a lamppost

We are ever so grateful to all our adoptive parents for making it possible for us to "pretty up" our lampposts with the beautiful potentilla flags. We have had many compliments on these colorful additions and hope you all are enjoying them as much as we are. We thank Doug Trowbridge and Chris Gnos for putting up the brackets and flags on 15 posts, and hope that next year we can adorn each and every one.

We are so grateful to the following generous individuals and businesses for helping us out with this project: Jack and Katy Threet; Frances Martinez at Rio Grande Savings and Loan; Bill Donner with CenturyTel; Maria MacNamee with Happy Trails Lady's Boutique; Cathe and Harry Kropp with Silver Mine Country Company; Ron Bubb with Switchback Mountain Gear and Apparel; David, Carol, D.J. and Michael Brown with BootJack Ranch; Dick and Harriet Giancaspro with Giancaspro Construction, Inc.; Jessie Formwalt with Appraisal Services, Inc.; Doc and Ronnie Doctor and family; Marsha Preuit with The Spa at Pagosa Springs; the Archuleta County commissioners and, of course, the Pagosa Springs Chamber of Commerce. Thank you all for your generosity and sense of community. We are in the process of creating the plaque in your honor which will hang in a prominent spot at the Visitor Center. We invite anyone who might be interested to contact us if you would like to adopt a lamppost at any time.

Fair volunteers

Ronnie Doctor is still looking for volunteers for this year's county fair and would love to receive a call from you.

Specifically, they are looking for help with set-up Tuesday, Aug. 3, and volunteers to help with this four-day event and tear-down Monday, Aug. 9.

This year's fair dates are Thursday, Aug. 5, through Sunday, Aug. 8, and Ronnie will be happy to hear from you at 264-6122 if you are interested in lending a hand. You will also find registration forms at the Chamber of Commerce, the community center, the senior center or the CSU Extension office. Volunteers 18 years and younger require parental consent, and young people 10 to 13 years of age must be accompanied by an adult.

Free ride day

To celebrate five successful years in business and to thank all the patrons of Mountain Express, the Archuleta Country Transportation Department will offer Free Ride Day Wednesday, July 7, and invite all to take advantage of this dandy opportunity.

The first bus hit the highway July 7, 1999, and they have been bookin' and cookin' ever since. This wonderful addition to the community has grown steadily over the years and enjoyed its most substantial growth spurt of 26 percent from 2002 to 2003.

Congratulations to all the good folks at Mountain Express, and we wish you many more years of success.


What a great week we're having with membership numbers that include a little bit of just about everything. We have three brand-new members, two new members with existing businesses with new names and owners, and 11 renewals.

Joan Evans joins us first with Evan's Holiday Haven located at 184 Holiday Ave. This Holiday Haven is a fully-furnished three-bedroom, two-bath home with deck, washer/dryer and a wood-burning stove. This non-smoking property sleeps six and is conveniently located two miles west of downtown Pagosa Springs. To learn more about this rental property, give Joan a call at (505) 294-2179.

David and Maria Olsen join us next with the Turkey Springs Trading Post. This trading post is also an RV park offering full hookups and fresh food daily. You'll find the best breakfast around as well as delicious pizza and elk burgers with all your favorite fixins. David and Maria invite you to visit them soon from 6 a.m. to 9 p.m. Monday through Saturday and assure you that you won't be disappointed. You can also give them a call at 731-2055.

Toni Stansfield-Huwer joins us next with Budget Blinds, in Durango. Toni offers shutters, draperies, wood blinds, honeycomb, roller shades, verticals, silhouettes, woven woods and window tint film. From low end to high end, Toni can help you out and offers free in-house consultations and estimates. You can give her a call at 385-5700.

In the next category, we have two members who have joined us as new owners with new names for businesses that were Chamber existing members. Is that confusing enough for you?

Tim and Melissa Rodgers join us with High Point Primitives, formerly Jump River Mercantile. As a matter of fact, I met Melissa at the JRM closing sale and strongly encouraged her to join up with the new business. Melissa offers antiques, primitives, distressed furniture and home décor in an absolutely charming environment. Please go in and welcome the Rodgers to the neighborhood or give them a call at 264-6061. We thank Kathryn Heilhecker for also encouraging Melissa to join us and will send off a SunDowner pass post haste with our thanks.

Our next business in the unusual category is Ridgeview Lanes (formerly Pagosa Fun Place) with Mike Chenowith as the contact person. Ridgeview Lanes phone is 731-1667. Available are bowling, skating and arcade/billiards with great food, birthday party packages and special events. They do offer a room for banquets, special events and private parties. The Back Alley Grill offers great entrees and sandwiches in a casual sports bar setting, and Checkrz is a '50s style soda shop serving ice cream, sandwiches and homemade pizza.

Our renewals this week include Gabriele W. Loudermilk with Equusloco; Bud Cunningham with Interior Dreams; Marilyn Hutchins with Aspen Winds Condo Reservations; Gary Hodges with Grandview Cabins and R.V. in South Fork; Louise Jagger with Chimney Rock Restaurant and Campground; Mark "Pops" Miller with Let It Fly, LLC; Lynne Bridges with Seeds of Learning Family Center; Tom D. Wood with Tom's Small Haul; Duane Graham with Diamond Hitch Stables; and Chamber board director and all-round good guy Scott Asay, and wife, Kris, with Asay Chiropractic and Wellness Center.

We thank each and every one and hope to see you all this weekend with all the July 3-4 madness.


Veteran's Corner

Grant for new VA health care vehicle approved

By Andy Fautheree

SUN Columnist

I received exciting news late last week: Our Veteran's Trust Fund grant application to purchase a new VA health care transportation vehicle has been approved.

The grant is for $30,000. American Legion Post 108 applied for it for late last year. The application for this grant was through a partnership between the American Legion and Archuleta County government, through this Veterans Service Office.

American Legion, as a nonprofit veteran's organization, is the qualified grantee. Archuleta County will provide the insurance, maintenance and licensing for the vehicle. Veterans provide their own fuel costs.

We will be purchasing a new vehicle with the grant money as soon as it is received, hopefully in the next month or two. It is anticipated at this time we will purchase another vehicle similar to the present 2003 Ford Taurus four-door sedan, since it has given us excellent service and low fuel costs.

Old vehicle died

Those of you who regularly use the veterans' VAHC transportation vehicle to get to your medical appointments have missed having two cars for this purpose.

The engine in the second vehicle, a 1999, went out a couple of months ago. This left us with only one vehicle for this purpose.

The Archuleta County commissioner's office was very helpful at times in letting us use their vehicle when it was available.

The current vehicle in use was also purchased by VTF Grant money in 2002 using the same partnership.

Paid by tobacco money

Veterans Trust Fund money is a portion of money set aside by the state of Colorado from the Tobacco Settlement Fund. The tobacco companies settled litigation with many states by paying into funds each year to assist with tobacco related health issues.

It was recognized that veterans were frequently associated with tobacco-related health problems since the use of tobacco was often supported or encouraged years ago in the military.

One of the targets of VTF money in particular is to assist veterans in rural areas with transportation needs to their health care appointments, since VA health care is frequently only available by traveling long distances.

Travel long distances

Veterans in Archuleta County travel to five different locations for their VA health care, with distances up to 535 miles.

I estimate we have about 1,300 veterans living in Archuleta County and between 500 and 600 are enrolled in VA health care.

I believe the Archuleta County veterans' VAHC transportation program is unique in the whole state. Also, I think Archuleta County may be the only county in Colorado that has been successful in obtaining two grants for this purpose, in only three years. We did not apply for a grant in 2003. VTF grants are not awarded for the same purpose in consecutive years.

We anticipated last year the older of our two vehicles would give out soon with about 150,000 miles on it. The new vehicle has now logged over 50,000 miles traveling to VA health care appointments. Our veterans are very careful drivers and all of those miles are accident free.

Proud to assist

We can be proud we are able to provide this service to our Archuleta County veterans in need of assistance to their VA health care appointments.

Many of our veterans need assistance with transportation because of financial or health reasons. We continue to be blessed with a network of volunteers to provide drivers for those that are unable to drive the vehicle themselves.

Very little taxpayer cost

I like to think the best part is we can provide this service to our veterans with very minimal cost to the taxpayers.

By purchasing new vehicles with full warranty, with VTF grant money, there is very little maintenance cost. Licensing is under government rules. The county under its blanket policies provides insurance; the veterans pay for their own fuel costs. Looks to me like a win-win situation for everyone.

Archuleta County is thankful to our veteran population for the service they have given our country. Veterans here are thankful that our veterans' organizations and county government provide this service through a unique partnership.

Durango VA Clinic

The Durango VA Outpatient Clinic is at 400 South Camino Del Rio, Suite G, Durango, CO 81301. Phone number is 247-2214.

For further Information

For information on these and other veterans' benefits please call or stop by the Veterans Service Office located on the lower floor of the county courthouse. The office number is 264-8375, the fax number is 264-8376, and e-mail is afautheree@ archuletacounty.org. The office is open 8 a.m.-4 p.m., Monday through Thursday, Friday by appointment. Bring your DD Form 214 (discharge) for registration with the county, application for VA programs and for filing in the VSO office.


Arts Line

Joye Moon reception opens show tonight

By Leanne Goebel

Special to The PREVIEW

Nationally-renowned artist Joye Moon opens her solo exhibit tonight at the gallery in Town Park.

A reception for the artist will be held 5-7 p.m.

Her show continues through July 28, and July 5-8 she'll present a workshop, "Unleashing the Power of Watercolor," all day, each day.

Hot food, cool art

The Pagosa Springs Arts Council and the Pagosa Chamber of Commerce will host a SunDowner Wednesday, July 28, in Town Park. This will be a combination SunDowner and fund-raiser for PSAC.

The fund-raiser will consist of a live art auction and silent auction with a low reserve payable to the artist.

Artists, please consider donating art for this event. The council is your organization.

Call the gallery in Town Park at 264-5020 or Doris Green at 264-6904. You may also e-mail psac@centurytel.net or greenacres1@centurytel.net.

PSAC is dedicated to serving local artists and providing workshops and exhibits to benefit the community.

Jewelry case donated

A jewelry display case, designed, constructed, and donated by David Smith is now on display at the gallery. This piece has a curved front and hand-turned legs that use the "trumpet and bun" motifs popular at the end of the 19th century. The legs, made from Pennsylvania hard maple, are stabilized at the base by gracefully curved stretchers joined at their centers by a ball and block mechanism. This design provides high strength in a delicate and light form suitable for exhibiting jewelry.

Bird's eye maple and period drawer pulls accent the curved drawer front. Raised moulding around the drawer front adds depth and interesting shading in low angle light. Three halogen lights illuminate a framed glass lid, which opens for easy access to jewelry. The six-step finishing process, gives the piece an "aged" appearance fitting its traditional design.

Elation center for arts

Creativity develops naturally through the arts. Elation Center for the Arts is offering music and dance classes for children, Mondays at Pagosa Lakes Clubhouse. Arts educators Paul and Carla Roberts draw upon children's innate creative abilities and help them develop artistic skills in fun ways. There is a class for toddlers and their moms at 10 a.m.; a class for children age 5 to 7 at 11 a.m.; and a class for children age 8 to 12 beginning at 1 p.m.

Registration is ongoing throughout the summer, and children can try a class without having to make a long-term commitment. For further information, call the Roberts at 731-3117.

Opportunities for artists

Artists Alpine Holiday in Ouray, Aug. 7-14. Early registration deadline is July 15. Artwork must be delivered to Ouray Community Center, 340 6th Ave., Aug. 2 between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. This year's judge is Ralph W. Lewis, retired professor emeritus of the University of New Mexico. Check out www.ourayarts.org for more information. Or contact DeAnn McDaniel at (970) 325-4372 or Diane Larkin at (970) 325-9821.

Ongoing workshops

Beginning Watercolor with Denny Rose and Virginia Bartlett, every Monday and Wednesday 9:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m., at the Fairfield Activities Center. Call 731-8060 to reserve a spot for only $25.

Upcoming workshops

Expressing Yourself in Mixed Media with Amy Rosner, June 28-30. Welcome to the only art class that will not encourage you to make your artwork look like the subject. The object of this workshop is to create emotionally expressive painting and collage.

No previous painting experience is necessary, but this class is for the experienced painter as well. Learn new techniques and gain a new way of looking at the subjects you paint. We begin by freeing you from the fear of failure so that you can unleash your true creative skills. You will learn how to channel your emotions into a meaningful work of art that is fun, therapeutic and aesthetically pleasing. Join me for a journey into the process of putting a part of yourself on paper. Amy Rosner, Ph.D. is a psychology of art teacher, visual attention researcher and lifetime artist.

Learn more about her at www.amyrosnerfineart.com or contact Amy at livingart@cox.net or (602) 697-9456. Each day will be unique, so if you cannot participate for all three days, you may join the class for individual days. The cost for all three days is $130 or $123.50 for PSAC members. Call for individual day rates.


July 8 - Photo club, 5:30 p.m.

July 14 - Watercolor club, 9:30 a.m.-3:30 p.m.

July 15 - Photo club meets 6:30 p.m. at community center

July 15-31 - Batik and Screamers papier maché workshop

July 27 - PSAC board meeting, 5 p.m.

Aug. 5-31 - Watercolor exhibit with Denny Rose, Ginnie Bartlett and watercolor students

Aug. 11 - Watercolor club, 9:30 a.m.-3:30 p.m.

Aug. 12 - Photo club, 5:30 p.m.

Aug. 11-13 - Basics II, Denny and Ginnie watercolor workshop

Aug. 15 - Home and garden tour, noon-5 p.m.

Aug. 16-21 - Cynthia Padilla botanical art workshop

Aug. 21 - Third Saturday workshop, 9 a.m.-3:30 p.m.

Sept. 11-12 - Colorado Arts Consortium, The Business of Art an Art pARTY

Sept. 17-19 - Juried art exhibit for PSAC members


Quilt Fest 2004 set July 2, 3 and 4

Quilt Fest 2004 is just around the corner.

Pagosa Piecemakers Quilt Guild members are working hard to put the finishing touches on their biannual show. You're invited to see all the wonderful displays and quilts at this year's show.

One of the highlights of the show will be the Pagosa Springs Heritage quilt created by guild members to celebrate the unique history of Pagosa Springs and the surrounding area. It features blocks that represent area history including Fort Lewis, Chimney Rock, the railroad and much more. This will be the first time the quilt will be on display here, although it has been seen in towns from Kentucky to California.

Guild members were issued a challenge in 2002 to create a quilt for this show. The theme of the challenge is "Pieces of America."

Quilts created for this challenge must have a tie into some aspect of America. Quilters will share the reasons behind the creation of their individual quilts. There are a nice variety of quilts entered into this challenge. Visitors to the show will have the opportunity to cast their votes for the quilt that is their favorite.

And, you'll want to be sure to visit the education booth. While this area is geared toward children, organizers are sure that adults will also enjoy what guild members have put together. The booth has been decorated to resemble an old-time schoolroom complete with a student or two.

The show has been expanded to include the upper gymnasium at the junior high. Upstairs will be a nice collection of antique sewing machines and some sewing notions, flanked by several antique quilts.

A popular attraction at the Quilt Fest 2002 was the Christmas Corner. This year the Christmas Corner will be located in the upstairs gymnasium. There will be large Christmas quilts and wall hangings, quilted ornaments and stockings. This is an exhibit that you won't want to miss.

Be sure to stop by the vendors' booths to see the latest in quilt patterns, fabrics and notions. Guild members have also created tote bags and needle cases to sell.

In addition to all the special areas of Quilt Fest, there will be plenty of quilts for quilt lovers to view. Well over 100 quilts will be on display for the weekend.

Some of the quilters have chosen to sell their quilts at the show this year. These quilts will be clearly marked with prices and instructions for purchase. This is your opportunity to own a beautiful piece of art.

Quilt Fest 2004 will be held July 2, 3 and 4 in the Mamie Lynch Gymnasium at the corner of Lewis and 4th streets. On July 3 and 4 the show will be open from 11 a.m. until 7 p.m. and on July 4 it will be open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. Entrance to the show will be via the doors on 4th Street. Admission to the show is $2 for adults and $1 for youth ages 10-18. Children 9 and under will be admitted at no charge. A multiple entry pass will be available for an additional $1. Please include a visit to Quilt Fest in your holiday plans.


Teens conduct impromptu dance night

By Karen Carpenter

Special to The PREVIEW

Spontaneity spawned a dance Friday night.

The teens wanted a fund-raiser dance and said they would do the whole thing if I helped with the food. A deal!

I was so pleased at the detail, organization and follow-through of these teens. The ringleader was Clinton Manzanares, 13 years of age. His leadership qualities in one so young are to be applauded.

The dance took place 8-11 p.m. There were a variety of ages and mostly boys (a mistake they will not repeat). We had seven chaperones who had as much fun as the teens. We watched a lot of technique and fancy footwork. Yes, a few of us tried but - oh, well.

We had open mic as well with instruction on how to "DJ" and run dance competitions. China Rivas sang many of the songs. What a joy to hear her vocal range.

New leaders have emerged and it looks like we will be have more frequent dances. I was so proud of these young people.

On Tuesday the teens participated in the "Patriotic Sing-along" here at the community center. They were helping hands in set-up and enthusiastic to bring in the Fourth of July week.

The advisory board will meet 5:30 p.m. today. If you have an interest in being on this board (student or adult) do not hesitate to call me.

We will have open mic again Friday. Any teen interested in practicing in front of a microphone is welcome to join in.

Next week we will have more games of competition and brain power. Maybe even a game of skill, squirt gun style.

The Teen Center is in the community center on Hot Springs Boulevard and is open 1-8 p.m. weekdays.

Call the center at 264-4152.


Invitation to holiday services

Mountain Christian Fellowship of Aspen Springs invites the public to join members in a Fourth of July celebration.

Worship service in the church facility on U.S. 160 in Aspen Springs begins at 9:45 a.m. and immediately afterward church members will be serving hot dogs and hamburgers. There will be pony rides, kickball, softball and volleyball.

Items from the Acts 5th Avenue Storehouse will be given away.

Call 264-2824 for directions and details.


First Sunday and July 4 potluck set for Unitarians

The Pagosah Unitarian Universalist Fellowship's annual Fourth of July potluck picnic, combined this time with the regular first Sunday service, will be held at the home of Peter and Ilene Haykus.

The morning program, beginning at 10:30, will be based on a sermon by the Rev. Steve Furrer, minister at the Santa Fe UU Congregation, on the Fifth UU Principle: "The Right of Conscience and the Use of the Democratic Process."

Older youth will conduct a special activity for kids ages 3-10 and child care for toddlers will be provided.

A potluck lunch will follow the service and a gas grill will be available for those wishing to barbecue. The hot tub will be open for adults wishing to soak, (no skin lotion that morning, please.)

Bring lawn chairs, sun protection and dinnerware for yourself and others and feel free to invite a friend.

Directions: U.S. 160 West to Hersch Avenue (point of interest and picnic table on right of highway), turn south and continue to 218 Spring Court. All are welcome.


Pet Pride Day event winners are listed

By Pauline Benetti

Special to The PREVIEW

Town Park was crowded Saturday with folks and their pets, including a chameleon, dogs, cats goats and llamas, and everyone seemed to be having a great time, with some possible momentary exceptions.

The application of an inoculation or a microchip was sometimes punctuated with a sharp "yipe" heard across the park.

The morning began earlier with the Canine 9K Race and the kids' Fun Run at 8 a.m. At the same time the Canine Good Citizen Evaluation began with 14 pets and their owners seeking American Kennel Club certification.

At 9 a.m. spectators were treated to the experience of watching the DBJ ranch put their beautiful llamas through an obstacle course. One spectator was heard to say "I didn't know llamas could do that." People learn lots of things at Pet Pride Day.

The Paws Parade lined up mid morning and 30 kids and adults with their pets paraded their way down the River Walk up to 5th Street, back through town along the sidewalk and down to the River Walk once again to Town Park.

Dogs, cats, llamas, goats, costumes - all very colorful and fun - evoked many a smile and waves from passing motorists.

At mid-morning many took their pets to participate with Deacon Roger Behr in a blessing of all animals. It was quite an uplifting moment. Deacon Behr read from scripture to remind us of the position of creatures other than ourselves in the creation.

Joe Donavan presented at least 20 breeds in his Breed Showcase and was the source of much interesting information about dog breeds. We were introduced to many of the pets that live in our community. The event started with Labradors and poodles and a labradoodle. For extremes in size we went from the Yorkshire and Manchester terriers bred as rat catchers to the protecting and herding dogs, Great Dane and Great Pyrenees. Then we met the dachshunds - smooth coated, wire haired and long haired - bred to catch badgers.

We learned that the Welsh Corgi was bred as a reverse herding dog. The Corgi's job was to keep other cattle out of his herd. No need for branding with a Corgi around. The heeler's background is interesting. Collies were brought to Australia for herding cattle but the long coat was not ideal for the outback so they were crossed with the wild dingo; however, the resulting cross breed did not like horses so they crossed it with the Dalmatian and the heeler was born.

We met the Rottweiler and learned its predecessor came to Germany with the Roman Legions and was used to drive the cattle that kept the soldiers alive and guard prisoners. They were left behind when the Romans departed and the people of Rottweil used them to drive cattle to market and protect the drovers as they returned with their money. They also were used to pull milk carts.

Immediately following the showcase, some 20 to 25 owners of shelter alumni gathered in front of the big trees as the east end of the park for a group photo. Imagine trying to get that many animals and people to look at a camera at the same time. Jeff Laydon saved the day with his wolf howl and was able to snap some good ones.

In addition there were many contests and many winners.

Twenty-eight participants registered in the racing/walking events.

In the adult racing category Tiffany Thompson (42 minutes, 21 seconds) and Heather Dahm (44:27) placed first and second in the female class; J.D. Kurz (31:24) and Joe Gilbert (39:25) placed first and second in the male class; under 15 and overall youth was Heather Dahm.

Top male and female runners with companion dogs were Mark Dahm (48:40) and Lisa Raymond (52:01). Top walkers in the Fun Run/Walk were Sierra and Miah Trout (40:00).

Top two or three in the age categories were as follows: 15 and Under - Heather Dahm (44:27); 16-19 - Tiffany Thompson (42:21 and Amber Farnam (51:33); 20-29 Males - J.D. Kurz (31:34) and Keith Candelaria (42:31); 30 to 39 female - Lisa Raymond (52:01), Karen Ross (52:01); 30-39 male - Nathan Trout (40:00) and Dan Keuning (49:02); 40-49 female - Diane Aaberg (47:27) and Andrea Ohly (1:14:16); 40-49 male Lynn Johnson (43:28) and Mark Dahm (48:40); 50-59 male - Joe Gilbert (39:25) and Harold Thompson (42:51); 60 plus, Dan Trout (39:3l) and Coye Jones (49:21).

In the Paws Parade, best costume went to Sierra Trout and her puppy Alisa who came dressed as Gingham Girls and to Haley Hudson and her pup who came as Hawaii Girl and her Cheerleader Dog; best look-alike went to Melanda Carter and her kitten Tiger who came dressed as Tiger Girls; best celebrity went to Clint Carter who came dressed as Samurai Boy and his dog Anna. Most unique pet and outfit went to Danelle Condon and her draft goat Leviticus and their passenger, Heleigh Zenz and baby.

More contests, a dozen in number, beginning at 11 and lasting throughout the day, produced more winners.

Nan Rowe's chameleon won face only a mother could love; Sherry Neill's miniature poodle won most colorful pet; Chuck Rock's Great Dane Smokey won tallest dog; biggest cat went to Bev Johnson's Hannibal at 13 pounds, who also won longest whiskers. A belated award went to Ivy Armijo's Elsie at 15 pounds. Next year Hannibal may have some competition if everyone can arrive on time.

Curliest tail went to Jeff Poling's dog Peabody, who curled her tail tightly for the contest and then held it straight as a stick for her photo. The smallest dog (under 4 lbs.) went to Reena Fair's Jazz.

In the best retriever category, the winner was Jan Camley with Bonnie. In the best Frisbee catcher contest, tie awards went to Toby Lucero and Bailey, and David Smith and Lizzie.

Best photo awards were won by Carl Kummer with a photo of his Weimaraner and Pat Hauschild with a photo of her puppy.

Fun, food, contest and a chance to join with other pet owners in an event planned specifically for pets and their owners - that's what Pet Pride Day is all about and it's the Humane Society's way to say thank you to the community for its generous support throughout the year.


Multi-tribal gathering at Chimney Rock will feature native dancers

By Caroline Brown

Special to The PREVIEW

Chimney Rock 2004, a multi-tribal gathering at the Chimney Rock Archaeological Area, will be held July 10-11.

Traditional dancers from Hopi, Acoma, Laguna, San Juan and Santa Clara pueblos and the Southern Ute Heritage Performers will be featured.

This event will celebrate the ongoing presence of indigenous cultures in this area for the last 1,000 years.

The Southern Ute Heritage Performers will present their traditional dances at the Chimney Rock cabin at 11 a.m. each day. Two-hour programs showcasing traditional pueblo dances in the Great Kiva will begin at 1 and 4 p.m.

The public is encouraged to be at the gate 30 minutes prior to the program and bring folding camping chairs. Native American arts and crafts will be available and there will be no regular guided tours that weekend.

Admission is $10 for adults and $5 for children 10 and under. All proceeds will be divided among the singers and dancers. No advance tickets will be sold.

According to Glenn Raby of the Pagosa Ranger District of the Forest Service, "Chimney Rock Archaeological Area is National Forest land within the Southern Ute Indian Reservation boundary and is managed by the U.S. Forest Service for archaeological protection and education. It has been recognized by the Forest Service and the U.S. Congress as a unique and special place, and is of great spiritual significance to American Indians, especially the pueblo peoples of the Southwest."

In September 1995, for the first time in almost 900 years, the great kiva of Chimney Rock resounded to Puebloan songs and dances. This annual event has continued and grown and on July 10 and 11, Chimney Rock 2004 will celebrate and preserve the past in today's world through traditional Native American song and dance.

The Chimney Rock Archaeological Area is approximately 20 miles west of Pagosa Springs.

The event is sponsored by Friends of Native cultures in cooperation with the Chimney Rock Interpretive Program and San Juan National Forest.

Funding in part is provided by Durango Friends of the Arts, and Friends of Archuleta County History.

For more information, call 731-4248.


Rodgers' music will bring Pagosa's 'Hills' to life

By John Graves

Special to The SUN

"The Hills Are Alive ," the Pagosa Springs Music Boosters' original revue showcasing the life work of composer Richard Rodgers, opens a week from today at the Pagosa Springs High School Auditorium.

Performances will start at 7:30 p.m. July 8, 9 and 10.

From 1920 to 1943, the songs of Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart were heard everywhere - on Broadway, in the movies, on the radio and even on the parlor piano.

In those days, songs were written to be performed in all kinds of situations - by all kinds and levels of performers - including night clubs, dance halls, amateur contests, fashion shows, school programs, concert halls and jazz joints.

Today's songs are singularly associated with and virtually "owned" by the performer who makes the CD and gives the original performance (often writing the music and lyrics as well.) Someone else performing the same song is merely doing a "cover" of the original work.

Today's audiences may be more familiar with the work of Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, a partnership which lasted from 1943 until 1959. By making the music and dances an integral part of the story, they completely revolutionized the form and substance of musical comedy.

Their Broadway hits, such as "Oklahoma!," "The King and I," "South Pacific" and "The Sound of Music" went on to become successful motion pictures, and their enduring musical literature is recognized and enjoyed by people of all ages, even today.

Reserved seat tickets for this full-scale musical production (with a cast of over 50 singers, dancers, and musicians) may be purchased at the Plaid Pony, 731-5262. Prices are $12 for adults, $10 for seniors, and $6 for children. Bring the whole family.


Pharmacist will discuss bio-identical hormones

Steve Walker, a compounding pharmacist, will speak at 7 p.m. July 9 in the community center on the topic of bio-identical hormone replacement.

The method is a more natural, plant-based form of hormone replacement that many women are showing interest in due to the side effects associated with traditional synthetic drugs now on the market.

Bio-identical means the chemical makeup of the replacement hormone is exactly the same as what the human body produces. These products have safely been used in Europe for over 50 years, but the American public is now becoming more interested in them.

Walker started compounding in the early 1900s, became certified as a menopausal educator in 1992 and has been compounding Bio-identical hormones since 2002.


Guitarist, songwriter Jack Williams set for Whistle Pig concert

By Bill Hudson

Special to The PREVIEW

The Whistle Pig Concert Series continues its 2004 season of intimate house concert performances with an appearance by Jack Williams, guitarist and songwriter extraordinaire 7 p.m. Friday, July 9 at the Hudson House, 446 Loma St. in Pagosa Springs.

Jack was recently described in Sing Out magazine as "one of the strongest guitar players in contemporary folk music," and Peter Yarrow, of Peter, Paul and Mary, called Jack "the best guitar player I've ever heard." Jack is also a remarkable singer and songwriter with a powerful vocal style.

He is presently based in Kerrville, Texas, but he originally hails from South Carolina, and the influence of Southern musical traditions is obvious in his finely crafted original songs and in his guitar style.

In the opinion of many fellow folk musicians, Jack is among the handful of artists who - in skill, depth and integrity - are simply beyond the pale of most performers on the circuit. Among acoustic guitarists, he is near-legendary. Having avoided the compromises of the commercial music industry during his 40-plus year professional career, he prefers working the road, playing coffeehouses, concerts festivals and house concerts week in, week out, from the sheer love of music and performing.

In recent years, Jack has emerged from self-imposed obscurity to become firmly established in the contemporary acoustic - or "folk" - music world. This has led him to acclaimed appearances recently at the Newport and Boston Folk Festivals, as well as at recent Kerrville and Philadelphia Festivals, and at several Folk Alliance Conferences, where his guitar-playing, songs, and commanding personal presence have caused a considerable buzz.

As a guitarist, he has been invited to accompany such notable musicians as Harry Nilsson, Tom Paxton, Peter Yarrow, and Mickey Newbury. Recently, in an Arlo Guthrie concert in Worcester, Mass., he was invited by Guthrie to join him on stage and sing one of his own songs, and then to join Arlo's group for the final half-hour of the concert. As a producer he has worked on CDs by Mickey Newbury, Carla Ulbrich, and, most recently, Eric Schwartz.

Jack's career has been nothing if not eclectic. He played trumpet in a jazz quartet in a beatnik coffeehouse in Seattle in 1959 - reading poetry to the audience during breaks. He learned banjo and mandolin to spice up folk groups in the '60s. He played pedal-steel guitar in a country-rock band, and composed chamber music for strings, winds, piano and voice for which he won a national arts grant. He also played classical guitar/lute in a Renaissance ensemble.

Jack has been writing original songs since 1970, and has four CDs of original music on the Wind River (Folk Era) label: "Highway From Back Home," "Dreams of the Song Dog," "Across the Winterline" and "Eternity & Main."

The Whistle Pig Concert Series is sponsored by Artstream Cultural Resources, a local arts and art education nonprofit. Suggested donation for the concert is $10, which includes homemade desserts, coffee and tea at intermission. All proceeds from the concert go to the musician.

Mark your calendar for this evening of compelling. Reservations are strongly suggested for this intimate house concert, and may be made by calling Clarissa Hudson at 264-2491.


'Some Enchanted Evening' will be holiday jazz highlight

By Bill Hudson

Special to The PREVIEW

Mix together several of the finest jazz musicians in Colorado, a festive Fourth of July weekend, a brand new dance floor, and a roomful of romantic music lovers and what do you have?

You have "Some Enchanted Evening," a community dance and concert sponsored by the Whistle Pig Concert Series in the Pagosa Springs Community Center 7:30-10:30 p.m. Friday, July 2.

The jazz musicians in this entertaining mix are Pagosa Springs locals Jack Hanson on clarinet and saxophone, John Graves on piano, DC Duncan on drums and Larry Elginer on trumpet, appearing as the Jack Hanson Combo.

These excellent musicians, who may be joined by one or more special guests during the evening, will be focusing their considerable musical talents on the jazz and dance music of the 1930s and '40s, for the dancing pleasure of the Pagosa community.

All four musicians have played professionally for decades.

Jack Hanson has led bands and combos throughout the country, and had a notable appearance in the movie "The Love Boat."

John Graves has been playing piano longer than he can remember, and has played parties and functions hosted by some of the biggest names in show business.

Drummer DC Duncan has appeared with numerous American music icons, including a memorable performance last fall with the famed blues and R&B innovator Bo Diddley.

Trumpet player Larry Elginer spent most of his career as a high school music teacher, but he also took every opportunity to play with big bands and combos in live performance as well as in the studio and on TV.

The brand new dance floor in question was recently purchased by the community center and arrived last week, just in time to be test-assembled for this upcoming weekend event. It features a solid wood dancing surface over a sturdy hollow core and is designed to make dancing the most comfortable experience possible. The community center staff is excited to have a community event make use of this new item during the Fourth of July weekend celebrations.

The roomful of romantic music lovers at the "Some Enchanted Evening" dance concert are none other than you - the readers of The SUN. Whether you come to dance the night away, or just to sit and listen to the finest jazz in Pagosa Springs, you can count on enjoying this special evening.

Suggested donation for the event is $15 per couple, or $8 per single, and tickets are available at Moonlight Books, WolfTracks Bookstore and Coffee, and at the door. Proceeds from the event will support the arts, education and cultural programs of Artstream Cultural Resources, a Pagosa-based nonprofit corporation.

So dig out your dancing shoes and pull out your favorite evening wear - and get ready for "Some Enchanted Evening."

For more information, contact Clarissa Hudson at 264-2491.


Orphanage benefit features living life off the grid dream

By Wendy Peters

Special to The PREVIEW

It's a common dream ... leaving the rat race behind and moving to a tropical island. Spending all day in a hammock. Picking fruit off the tree and maybe a little fishing at sunset. Ahh, the good life!

Well, Iala actually did it. She looked her trusting husband, Akal, in the eye and said: "All our dreams can come true now - we don't have to wait."

And he believed her!

PARaDIse 4 $Ale, Iala's one-woman "detour de tropical storm" is the result.

The show is an off-the-grid tale of an apartment-dwelling, office-working, city slicker touched by a vision and morphing overnight into a jungle jenny, earth mama, back-to-nature hippie queen.

Iala takes us through her journey. It is not necessarily chronological or for that matter linear logical, but still manages to touch on visions that just won't quit - a near death experience, and close encounters of the touching kind with wolves and eccentrics. All the while she tumbles mightily from the mountain of "I know it all" to the valley of "I haven't got a clue."

Her whimsical word weaving, skillful storytelling and vibrant energy - along with her hilarious recognition of her own shortcomings - keeps us willing hostages on the edges of our seats.

PARaDIse 4 $Ale is an army ant, coral snake, tin roof pounding torrent of delightful tropical overkill that leaves one happy with one's quiet, quotidian life and grateful for one's piece of the American dream.

Hurray for cell phones, satellite TV, air conditioning and RAID!

After hearing Iala's story, life off-the-grid sounds way off the wall and a bit too one-with-nature for any sane, logical progression-of-thought modern technofile like me.

Enjoy the trip, living vicariously through 90 deliciously manic, highly charged, "I know it all and even if you don't ask I'll tell you" minutes with Miss Iala.

PARaDIse 4 $Ale is written and performed by Iala and can be seen 8 p.m. Saturday, July 10, in the Pagosa Lakes Clubhouse at 230-A Port Avenue.

Tickets are $11. For reservations call 731-5955.

Performances benefit Casa de Milagros, an orphanage in Peru. See their new Web site at www.chandlersky.org.


Folk Fest headliners ride the hits parade

By Crista Munro

Special to The PREVIEW

With the Fourth of July just around the corner, can Labor Day be far behind? Fortunately there is one reason to look forward to the end of summer — the ninth annual Four Corners Folk Festival.

This year's event will be held Sept. 3-5 on Reservoir Hill in Pagosa Springs.

"Folk" may be a bit misleading, as that descriptor tends to draw up images of coffee house hipsters and beatnik poets. But the true concept of folk is music whose roots come from the original, most basic musical genres: blues, Celtic, Cajun, bluegrass and traditional folk music from around the world.

Artists at the Four Corners Folk Festival draw upon these influences then take the music to the next level, often combining many of the styles above to create new music while preserving the traditional flavors and melodies.

Two artists who do this brilliantly are Gillian Welch and Tim O'Brien, who will both be appearing at Four Corners Folk Festival.

Gillian Welch has been on the music scene since her debut CD "Revival" in 1996, but recently made it big with her role in the musical score for "O Brother Where Art Thou?" She has been nominated for a Grammy award four times, winning one in 2002 for her work on that soundtrack. Gillian's music has the uncanny ability to sound as if it were written 100 years ago, telling stories of the Dust Bowl, orphaned children and old-fashioned still houses - stark but powerful stories set to music whose bare intensity conveys an almost unbearable beauty.

Her songs have appeared in many Hollywood films including, "The Good Girl," "Down From the Mountain," "The Journeyman," "Songcatcher," "Hope Floats," "The Horse Whisperer" and "Niagara, Niagara." Gillian will take the festival stage with partner David Rawlings 4:15 p.m. Saturday, Sept. 4.

Tim O'Brien is not a new face to the Four Corners Folk Festival, but since his first appearance in 1997 with sister Mollie O'Brien and back up band The O'Boys his sound has been constantly evolving. Tim's last three CDs - "Traveler," "Two Journeys" and "The Crossing" - feature a blend of Celtic melodies, bluegrass rhythms and clever lyrics that make these songs instant Americana classics. Like Gillian's, Tim's songs convey old stories of Irish-American Civil War soldiers and poor immigrants washing up on America's shores with only the clothes on their backs.

But he writes modern tales too - including an ode to a pair of Chuck Taylor high top sneakers and the story of an eye-opening trip back to his ancestors' hometown in Ireland.

Tim has penned numerous hit songs for artists like Garth Brooks ("When There's No One Around"), the Dixie Chicks ("More Love"), and Nickel Creek ("When You Come Back Down"). He and his band are set to close this year's festival starting 8:30 p.m. Sunday, Sept. 5.

Other musicians on the festival lineup are Eddie From Ohio, the subdudes, the Eileen Ivers Band, Drew Emmit and Freedom Ride, the John Cowan Band, the Barra MacNeils, the Waybacks, the Marc Atkinson Trio, the Pagosa Hot Strings, The Bills (formerly the Bill Hilly Band), Mark Erelli, Ryan Shupe and the RubberBand and the Matt Flinner Quartet.

In addition to live musical performances, the event also features a children's program, arts and crafts vendors, camping, and workshops.

The Four Corners Folk Festival is supported by funding from the Colorado Council on the Arts, a state agency funded by the Colorado General Assembly and the National Endowment for the Arts, a federal agency. Tickets are available locally at Moonlight Books. For additional information, or to order tickets with a credit card, log on to www.folkwest.com or call 731-5582.


Ways to enjoy the county fair

By Jim Super

Special to The PREVIEW

The Archuleta County Fair is winding its way around the corner.

The final processes are being detailed so that we all may have a safe and fun time.

With the nominal price of admission, people can enjoy the festivities without breaking the bank. To assure that everyone has a pleasant experience, I will detail a few things that a fairgoer might find helpful.

Firstly, August is notoriously the hottest month here and the fair is will be held Aug. 5-8.

Patrons of the fair should dress appropriately to avoid the perils of excessive heat - clothing that fits with the climate and temperature at this time of year. Light colored clothing reflects heat. Natural fibers such as cotton are breathable and enable a person to be more comfortable. You might look great in a black polyester outfit, but the heat and sun will claim you as its prize.

Sunscreen is very important, especially when spending a great deal of time outdoors. Dermatologists recommend a minimum of an SPF 30. There are many products on the market, even some with bug repellant in them. Anyone who has experienced sun poisoning can attest to the fact that it is a painful and nauseating dilemma that can be prevented.

Hydration is one of the keys to having a good time. Drinking water is one of the best ways to re- hydrate your system. Caffeine and alcohol depletes your system of necessary fluids, more so when hot weather is added to the mix. If you are going to have beer, make sure you alternate with water.

House pets will not be permitted at the fair and there are no exceptions. In the past people have made elaborate excuses for why their pets should be able to come on to the fairgrounds. It does not matter if your animal can read braille or do calculus with its hind legs, the answer is no. There are safety issues that have arisen in the past with pets displaying aggressive behavior. House pets also need to go to the bathroom, which creates a sanitation issue on the grounds.

Coolers will also be prohibited at the fairgrounds. It is a fair not a family picnic, and there are plenty of food and beverages to purchase that all may enjoy.

Vendors still interested in delivering services at this year's fair are encouraged to contact Pamela Bomkamp at the Extension office, 264-2388, for an enrollment packet.

We on the board thank you in advance for your patronage at this year's event.

We wish all of you a great fair experience and look forward to your enjoyment of the festivities at the fairgrounds at Mill Creek Road and U.S. 84.


Andy and Eva are Fiesta grand marshals

By Jeff Laydon

Special to The PREVIEW

Spanish Fiesta Club will honor Andy and Eva Martinez as Fiesta grand marshals for the July 17 event.

Both lifetime residents of Pagosa Springs have been involved with the club for over 15 years.

Amadeo (Andy) Martinez was born in Trujillo to Lucas and Marita Martinez. Andy was a barber in Pagosa Springs for 20 years. He met and eventually married Evangeline (Eva) Espinosa in 1951.

Eva was born to Jose and Clarita Espinosa at the town light plant where her father worked as engineer.

The two have three children - Leonard, Jamie and Vindred - and six grandchildren. Vindred was a Spanish Fiesta scholarship recipient and is now working as an office manager for a realty firm in Durango.

Andy and Eva have always been very supportive of the scholarship program and hope the club will continue and grow. "Es paramos que siega la Fiesta."


Food for Thought

Holiday fare, courtesy the U.S. Navy

By Karl Isberg

SUN Columnist

Avast. It's time to go ashore for supplies.

Tradition has it you eat better in the navy than in other branches of the service.

According to a book I am reading, it's true if you were in the U.S. Navy in 1944. If your cooks cleaved to the manual and had the goods to do it, you were chowing down on classic mid-American cuisine. Much of the time, the best of the genre; in a few instances, the worst.

The book I'm referring to is "The Cook Book of the United States Navy." This copy has a little tag attached to the cover reading, "Assigned to Galley 8." My pal Jack's mom brought him the volume recently when she journeyed from South Dakota to Pagosa.

"It's a hoot," said Jack.

Indeed it is, matey.

I've spent several nights poring over the tome, trying to relate it to my nautical experience. The nearest I got to the navy was several years as a Boy Scout at Camp Tahosa where I was obsessed with row boats, and a week aboard the U.S.S. Independence a few years ago, cruising the Hawaiian islands with in-laws. At camp I rowed incessantly, a chubby aquanaut plowing from one end of the turbid, weed-choked lake to the other, ceasing only for noon and evening meals. I earned my rowing merit badge and built phenomenally strong rear deltoids. On the Independence, I walked incessantly - from one dining room or food station to the next, knocking back six meals per day as the islands passed unobserved on my starboard side.

As I read the cook book, I discovered only one clear correspondence: camp, cruise ship and aircraft carrier demand that cooks be able to prepare food for a crowd.

This book is a map to institutional cooking at its best. Given even marginal kitchen skills, anyone can take the recipes and provide nutritious and, in many cases, delicious fare for crowds numbering in the hundreds. In fact, every recipe in the book provides a minimum 100 servings and can be manipulated, up or down, with math even an idiot like me can almost understand: Divide amounts by a hundred then multiply by the number of servings desired. Or something like that.

I decided to try out a couple recipes on my wife and youngest daughter who was in town for a visit. I intend also to expand the effort a bit when my brother and his family board the U.S.S. Karl for the Fourth of July holiday. (Let's see, divide 82 pounds of bratwurst by a hundred, multiply by seven).

The book is in good shape; the guys in Galley 8 treated it with respect. There are ample warnings to anyone who would act carelessly; the brig awaited all but the innocent abuser. Every open space in the book is stamped with "Property of Commissary Dept. U.S. Naval Trng & Dist CET."

According to W.B Young, Paymaster General of the Navy, the manual is "a summary of the principles of cookery, menu planning, and a comprehensive collection of recipes based on the newer knowledge of nutrition." As in many cookbooks of the time, the approach is straightforward, refreshing.

Just as the Paymaster General warned, the first section deals with "Nutritional Value of Foods."

I read with great interest that "All materials for building and maintaining strong, active bodies must be secured from the dairy products, eggs, fruits and vegetables, meats, and cereal products which are issued to the mess."

"Mess" is certainly an accurate description of my kitchen.

The first section deals with proteins, six vitamins and two minerals and reminds the reader that "active men" require "3,000 to 4,500 calories per day."

I can confidently add that "active" men on a cruise ship require 10,000 to 12,500 calories per day, to include several hefty servings of those snappy profiteroles.

Next up in the manual is menu planning, adding to the nutritive component the need to provide "meals which are interesting, attractive, varied, and satisfying, This is helpful in maintaining good morale."

I'll say. My morale is tightly linked to attractive, satisfying food. One unattractive, unsatisfying meal and I plunge into the pit of depression. Imagine a battleship full of depressed swabbies.

A pattern is then provided for the naval meal planner indicating the basic foods needed at breakfast, dinner and supper. Growing up, I never got the dinner/supper thing straight. There were frequent arguments among family members concerning whether dinner should be the noon meal or not. Thankfully, lunch gained in popularity and dinner moved to a spot later in the day. This seems to hold true today, except in parts of Texas where some recalcitrant souls cling stubbornly to the concept of supper.

These navy guys were clear on the matter, however, and ate well-balanced meals, albeit in archaic order (breakfast, then supper, then dinner) and the book includes sample menus for winter, spring, summer and fall, with no meal combination repeated during a given week.

There's a chapter on food preparation and hygiene (yes, cooks washed their hands in the '40s) and some guidelines for calculating servings for 1,000 diners or more - something any cook should know.

Then, the recipes.

It's like Escoffier went to work on mid-century, middle-American cuisine. This is one of the greatest collections of basic American cooking I've ever read. It's a breath of culinary fresh air. These days, you wander the food section of a bookstore and you are exposed to a plethora of specialty cookbooks - collections of mincy, special interest nonsense, geared to an audience of 12. Many of the books contain recipes with ingredients you can't find anywhere but a specialty food store in a major city or a shop in Tuscany. The authors are so precious, or so consumed with relating their recipes to a diet, a trendy tourist destination or a rare food group, that they fail to provide a single recipe worth replicating.

Not the U.S. Navy, circa 1944.

Betty Crocker and Fannie Farmer had nothing on these guys.

The recipe section begins with beverages. Want to know five ways to make coffee? You got 'em. How about fruit punch? It's there

Macaroni? All you want, without fancy additives from a quaint village near Lake Como. Just down-home fare. Tomato or Welsh Rarebit anyone?

There's eggs, fruit, cereals, desserts galore.

You want fish? Makes sense for the navy, eh? How about a heaping portion of scup? Not only do you become acquainted with the potential of 38 varieties of fish and shellfish, you are given instructions on finning, filleting and boning the creatures as well. I liked the recipes for baked halibut with tomatoes, oven-broiled mackerel and oysters Creole.

Meat? Wanna know how to store, cut and cook anything that walks? It's in the book, sailor. Included is an insert showing how to hack up and use every part of the cow but the ears. We're boning, we're larding, we're rendering. We're frying, we're roasting, we're broiling, we're braising. Herd 'em on board, slice 'em up, cook 'em and serve 'em. There's meat in the mess.

Need some French pot roast? It's there. Got a hankerin' for beef and kidney pie? Can do. Beef croquettes? Lamb curry? Braised pork steak? Ham and pork loaf? Jambalaya? Veal birds? All there, and more.

As are some unfortunate offerings: baked luncheon meat, liver loaf, Vienna sausage with Spanish rice. Even the navy cook had an off day.

In the poultry section, the neophyte is instructed in the crafts of drawing, trussing, removing tendons, etc., as well as disjointing fryers and fowl.

Want to know how to roast 85 turkeys at a time? Need enough poultry stuffing for 2,000 diners? No problem. This book can tell you how to get there.

There are some true classics: chicken a la king, baked chicken and noodles, chicken and vegetable pie, chicken croquettes. Just like grandma (yours, not mine) used to make.

There is a section of gravy and sauce recipes that is as fundamental as you get. No demi-glace or glace de viande here, but you'll find a surprisingly sound explanation of how to produce what is, essentially, a classic French brown stock.

The salads are right out of a Church of the Nazarene picnic and the dressings are basic, including an excellent hot bacon model.

Anyone ever eaten a baked bean sandwich? I discovered all you need is a can of baked beans and some evaporated milk.

There are plenty of soups which, I assume, were not served during a typhoon. The list includes some interesting chowders and bisques. Fruits de mer, you know?

There are sections for vegetables, for baked goods, then a list of common kitchen terms. Everything you need.

The possibilities are endless and, this Fourth of July, the options for a patriotic table provided in this old book are splendid.

The baked bean sandwich is alluring, I must admit, mashing the baked beans then blending them with the evaporated milk. Slather a slick of this fine concoction (perhaps adding minced bologna for a special treat) on a hunk of white bread and you can't get much more American.

The franks in a blanket are in the running as is the potato salad using dehydrated Julienne-style spuds.

But, on page 195, there exists a gem so fundamentally summer-Fourth of July-heartland-of-the-nation incredible that it must be made.

Perfection Salad.

You need lemon-flavored gelatin, water (both hot and cold), diced celery, finely chopped cabbage, finely chopped carrot, finely chopped green Bell pepper, vinegar, salt, chopped lettuce and mayonnaise.

You can see it and taste it now, can't you? Admit it, you had an aunt or grandmother who produced something similar for special occasions, didn't you?

Fire up the memory banks, use your imagination. There it is, a low-slung, quivering rectangle of yellowish gelatin, chock full of teensy bits of crispy aromatic veggies, sitting on a bed of lettuce leaves that are browning at the edges, the pile topped with a dollop of mayonnaise 20 minutes or so past its breaking point.


With the help of the U.S. Navy Cook Book I'll be able to produce this holiday treat for my family.

I'll need 3 pounds, 4 ounces of gelatin (divided by 100, multiplied by 7); 3 pounds each of celery and cabbage (divided by 100, multiplied by seven); 1 pound each of the Bell pepper and carrot (divided by 100, multiplied by 7); 1 1/2 pints of vinegar (divided by 100, multiplied by 7); 1 tablespoon of salt (divided by 100, multiplied by 7); 6 pounds of lettuce (divided by 100, multiplied by 7); 4 pounds of mayonnaise (divided by 100, multiplied by 7); 3 1/2 quarts of cold water and 1 gallon of hot water (etc., etc.).

I'll dissolve the gelatin in the hot water, stir in the cold water and chill until slightly thickened. The veggies will be mixed with the vinegar and salt then stirred into the gelatin. The mix will be chilled in a shallow pan until set firm, then cut into 2 1/2-inch squares. Each square will be placed atop coarsely cut lettuce and crowned with a wad of the mayonnaise.

It'll go great with the baked bean and bologna sandwiches, and some of that reconstituted potato salad. In fact, as a grand gesture to the spirit of the holiday, I intend to use food coloring and tint half the gelatin squares red and half blue. With the white of the mayonnaise, diners will stand and salute.

I can't wait to see the expressions on everyone's faces.

Then, come July 5, I'll plop a slab of liver loaf on my guests' plates.

I guarantee they won't overstay their welcome.

Anchors aweigh.


Cruising with Cruse

Was 1908 fireball a precursor of doom?

By Katherine Cruse

SUN Columnist

Yesterday, June 30, was the 96th anniversary of the Tunguska Event. "And what was that?" you ask.

Tunguska is a region of Siberia. The Tunguska River flows through it. The Tungus tribesmen live there. The area is forest and bog. Mosquitoes are everywhere.

In the early morning hours of June 30, 1908, people who happened to be awake saw a bright fireball streaking toward the trading village of Vanavara, leaving a fiery trail in the sky. It seemed to disappear over the horizon, and then it blew up in a series of cataclysmic explosions.

Since it exploded up in the air, instead of hitting the ground, it left no crater. But it destroyed a large forest area. The trees keeled over like so many straws, falling with their tops pointing away from the epicenter. They fell over as far away as 10 miles from the blast and covered an area about half the size of Rhode Island.

Think of it as the world's largest crop circle.

Over 100 feet away, horses were knocked off their feet.

The hot center where the explosions took place caused an enormous firestorm. The column of flame could be seen as far away as 200 miles. It sucked up ash and powdered tundra fragments, which were carried by air currents around the world. Bursts of thunder could be heard 150 miles away.

The fires burned for weeks, and unusually colorful sunsets and sunrises were reported in Western Europe, Scandinavia, and Russia.

Some people who had been close to the blast sickened and died, much like people with radiation sickness. The shaman-chief of the Tungus people, or Evenks, forbade people to go into the region, proclaiming it "enchanted."

Following the blast there was accelerated growth of biomass in the region of the epicenter which continues today. There also was an increase in the rate of biological mutations. Abnormalities in the Rh blood factor of local Evenk groups have been found. Scientists have found genetic abnormalities in a local pine species and in a local ant species.

Okay, what was it? There are various theories. It was a black hole. It was a chunk of antimatter, something that doesn't normally exist in this universe. UFO aficionados want us to believe that it was the explosion of the nuclear power plant in an extraterrestrial spaceship. Most scientists think that it was either a comet or a stony asteroid. (An asteroid is all rock; a comet has ice in it.)

But if it was an asteroid, where's the crater? Where are the fragments?

Possibly part of the asteroid was pulverized in the explosion. Possibly the part that remained skipped off in a new direction and back out of the atmosphere.

Why am I writing about the Tunguska Event? Why should we even care?

Because, the folks who study this sort of thing think that such explosions may happen every couple of centuries. Don't panic yet; most of them happen over the ocean. What a relief.

There are lots of objects out there in our solar system, all of them in elliptical orbits around the sun. Occasionally their orbits intersect those of planets, leading to a collision. The little ones make shooting stars, very nice to look at. The bigger ones make holes. Or explosions. The bigger the asteroid, the more damage it causes. Well, duh.

In 1972, a 1,000-ton object skimmed tangentially through Earth's atmosphere over the Grand Tetons in Wyoming, and then skipped back out into space, like a stone skipping off water. Even the tourists got photographs of it. Had it continued on into the atmosphere, it could have caused a Hiroshima-scale explosion over Canada, somewhat smaller than the Tunguska blast, which they think was on the order of one very large H-bomb.

A month ago a three-pound, grapefruit-sized asteroid went through the roof of a house in New Zealand. The people who "inherited" this rock are following expert advice by drying it out in their oven. (I'm not kidding.) They hope to sell it and make a lot of money.

There's the mile-wide Meteor Crater near Flagstaff, Arizona. There's the impact site off the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, now buried by ocean sediments, which is believed to have wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. There's the crater off northern Australia that may be evidence of the Permian extinction 250 million years ago, when 90 percent of living species were wiped out.

It's nice to know that the larger the impact, the rarer it is.

But here's the bad news. Evidence is growing that the Earth may get hit by a big comet or asteroid, the kind that could cause global devastation. So in the 1990s the U.S. and other countries started collaborating to study and track Near Earth Objects, or NEOs.

The Tunguska Event is special because it's the only big impact that's happened in the history of civilization, when we humans could notice it. The folks who have studied the Tunguska Event say it will happen again. It's only a matter of time.

Here's some data about Near-Earth Objects, from the book, "Rogue Asteroids and Doomsday Comets," by research astronomer Duncan Steel, of the Anglo-Australian Observatory.

Table of terrors

About 2,000 objects massive enough (1 kilometer diameter) to cause global catastrophe are known to cross Earth's orbit. Such an impacting object would wipe out 25 percent of humanity.

About 10,000 objects of 500 meter size cross Earth's orbit.

About 300,000 objects of 100 meter size cross Earth's orbit.

About 150 million objects of 10 meter size cross Earth's orbit.

Frequency of impactors:

Pea-size meteoroids - 10 per hour.

Walnut-size - one per hour.

Grapefruit-size - one every 10 hours.

Basketball-size - one per month.

50-m rock that would wipe out an area the size of New Jersey -one per century.

1-km asteroid - one per 100,000 years.

2-km asteroid - one per 500,000 years.

A "nemesis" parabolic comet impactor would give us only a six-month warning.

Now go out and enjoy your weekend.


Local Chatter


Salute the first flag that passes in parade

By Kate Terry

SUN Columnist

We have to be reminded sometimes just why we celebrate July 4. That day in 1776 was the day the United States was born, the day our Declaration of Independence was ratified.

And Pagosa Springs celebrates with a parade as do most towns and cities. Because the Fourth is on a Sunday, the parade will be on Saturday.

For those new to the town, the parade will line up on 8th Street and then move onto U.S. 160 and end on 2nd Street.

A big question in the minds of many is what to do about saluting the American Flag?

It's simple! Salute the first American Flag that passes in the parade. A color guard will head the parade. This is standard practice in most parades.

As the color guard passes in front of you, stand (if possible) and, facing the flag, make your salute by placing your hand over your heart or if in uniform, make a hand salute. Those who are not in uniform, but have been in the service, sometimes also give a hand salute.

This one-time salute shows the proper respect.

That's all there is to it. Enjoy the parade!

Fun on the run

Some wacky definitions

- Egocentric: A person who believes he is everything you know you are

- Magazine: Bunch of printed pages that tell you what's coming in the next issue

- College: The four-year period when parents are permitted access to the telephone

- Emergency numbers: Police station, fire department and places that deliver

- Opera: When a guy gets stabbed in the back and instead of bleeding he sings

- Buffet: A French word that means "Get up and get it yourself."

- Babysitter: A teen-ager who must behave like an adult so that the adults who are out can behave like teen-agers

- Traffic light: Apparatus that automatically turns red when your car approaches

- People: Some make things happen, some watch things happen and the majority have no idea what's happened.


Extension Viewpoints

Using common soaps to control plant pests

By Bill Nobles

SUN Columnist

Friday July 1 - Colorado Kids, Extension office, 2:15 p.m.; 4-H Goat, Extension office, 3 p.m.

Wednesday, July 7 - Mountain High Gardeners meeting, 10 a.m.; 4-H livestock weigh-in, Fairgrounds, 6-7 p.m.

Soaps can be used to control a wide range of plant pests. Small, soft-bodied arthropods such as aphids, mealybugs, psyllids and spider mites are most susceptible to soaps.

The ease of use, safety and selective action of soaps appeal to many people.

Limitations of soaps include the need to wet the insect during application, absence of any residual effectiveness, and potential to damage some plants.

Soaps or detergents used for control of insects are applied as dilute sprays, mixed with water to produce a concentration of about 2 percent.

Soaps have been used to control insects for more than 200 years. Recently, there has been increased interest in and use of these products. This change is due to a better understanding of how to use soaps most effectively and a desire to try insecticides that are easier and safer to use than many currently available alternatives.

How soaps and detergents kill insects is still poorly understood. In most cases, control results from disruption of the cell membranes of the insect. Soaps and detergents may also remove the protective waxes that cover the insect, causing death through excess loss of water.

Soap-detergent sprays

Soaps and detergents act strictly as contact insecticides, with no residual effect. To be effective, sprays must be applied directly to and thoroughly cover the insect.

Several insecticidal soaps are distributed for control of insects and mites. Available under a variety of trade names, the active ingredient of all is potassium salt of fatty acids. Soaps are chemically similar to liquid hand soaps. However, there are many features of commercial insecticidal soap products that distinguish them from the dishwashing liquids or soaps that are sometimes substituted.

Insecticidal soaps sold for control of insects:

- are selected to control insects

- are selected to minimize potential plant injury

- are of consistent manufacture.

Some household soaps and detergents also make effective insecticides. In particular, certain brands of hand soaps and liquid dishwashing detergents can be effective for this purpose. They are also substantially less expensive. However, there is increased risk of plant injury with these products. They are not designed for use on plants.

Dry dish soaps and all clothes-washing detergents are too harsh to be used on plants. Also, many soaps and detergents are poor insecticides. Identifying safe and effective soap-detergent combinations for insect control requires experimentation. Regardless of what product is used, soap-detergent sprays are always applied diluted with water, typically at a concentration of around 2-3 percent.

Susceptible insects

Most research with insecticidal soaps and detergents has involved control of plant pests. In general, these sprays are effective against most small, soft-bodied arthropods, such as aphids, young scales, whiteflies, psyllids, mealybugs, and spider mites. Larger insects, such as caterpillars, sawflies and beetle larvae, generally are immune to soap sprays. However, a few large insects, including boxelder bugs and Japanese beetles, are susceptible.

Insecticidal soaps are considered selective insecticides because of their minimal adverse effects on other organisms. Lady beetles, green lacewings, pollinating bees and most other beneficial insects are not susceptible to soap sprays. Predatory mites, often important in control of spider mites, are an exception: a beneficial group of organisms easily killed by soaps.


One of the most serious potential drawbacks to the use of soap-detergent sprays is their potential to cause plant injury - their phytotoxicity. Certain plants are sensitive to these sprays and may be seriously injured. For example, most commercial insecticidal soaps list plants such as hawthorn, sweet pea, cherries and plum as being sensitive to soaps. Portulaca and certain tomato varieties also are sometimes damaged by insecticidal soaps. The risk of plant damage is greater with homemade preparations of household soaps or detergents. When in doubt, test soap-detergent sprays for phytotoxicity problems on a small area a day or two before an extensive area is treated.

Plant injury can be reduced by using sprays that are diluted more than the 2 to 3 percent suggested on label instructions. To reduce leaf injury, wash plants within a couple of hours after the application. Limiting the number of soap applications can also be important, as leaf damage can accumulate with repeated exposure.

However, because of the short residual action, repeat applications may be needed at relatively short intervals (four to seven days) to control certain pests, such as spider mites and scale crawlers. Also, application must be thorough and completely wet the pest. This usually means spraying undersides of leaves and other protected sites. Insects that cannot be completely wetted, such as aphids within curled leaves, will not be controlled.

Environmental factors also can affect use of soaps. In particular, soaps (but not synthetic detergents) are affected by the presence of minerals found in hard water, which results in chemical changes producing insoluble soaps (soap scum). Control decreases if hard-water sources are used. Insecticidal soaps may also be more effective if drying is not overly rapid, such as early or late in the day.

Soaps and detergents can offer a relatively safe and easy means to control many insect pests. As with all pesticides, however, there are limitations and hazards associated with their use. Understand these limitations, and carefully follow all label instructions.

Approximate mix to produce various diluted soap sprays.

- 1 percent dilution: 1 gallon water to 2 1/2 tablespoons soap; 1 quart water to 2 teaspoons soap; 1 pint water to 1 teaspoon soap.

- 2 percent dilution: 1 gallon water to 5 tablespoons soap; 1 quart water to 4 teaspoons soap; 1 pint water to 2 teaspoons soap.

- 3 percent dilution: 1 gallon water to 8 tablespoons soap; 1 quart water to 2 tablespoons soap; 1 pint water to 1 tablespoon soap.

- 4 percent dilution: 1 gallon water to 10 tablespoons soap; 1 quart water to 2 1/2 tablespoons soap; 1 pint water to 4 teaspoons soap.


Pagosa Lakes News

Eighty-four miles and six days on the San Juan

By Ming Steen

SUN Columnist

As I have grown older (and perhaps wiser) and have collected more and more responsibilities (great husband, two lovely children, special friends, etc.), I have found myself becoming more and more risk averse.

Hopefully this comes as some small comfort to my husband who believes I take far too many risks.

However, as those of you who set out into untamed country can attest, leaving the secure cocoon of home for the unknown is an inherently dangerous move.

As I considered joining a raft and kayak trip on the lower San Juan, I knew I was placing myself at some small risk. I also knew that is it was an absolute guarantee that at least one out of the 13 of us would fall into the river at some point during the journey and would end up swimming through a rapid. This sounded like fun, but it could also be terrifying.

On June 14, a disparate group of 13 adults put in at Sand Island, three miles west of the town of Bluff, Utah, for an 84-mile (and six-day) trip down to Clay Hills. The carrying vessels consisted of three rafts, three inflatable kayaks, one canoe, and two hard-shell kayaks.

Our goal on this trip was to have fun, safe fun, as concern for each other's safety topped the list. This meant if someone was killed or seriously injured (we will all be mildly injured) on this trip, it would be because that person did so of his own free will without juvenile dares from the rest of us.

Seven females and six males, ranging in age from late 30s to mid-60s made up for the lack of youthful vigor and flare with sobriety from cumulative life experiences. Three were still recovering from divorces and definitely none of us were huge risk takers out to pit ourselves against the harshest elements of nature. We were on a trip to decompress and relax.

Accustomed to multi-day outings on bicycles and on my own two feet, I was flabbergasted at the huge quantity of baggage that came along. Our loading beach reminded me of the departure terminal of the Karachi International Airport in Pakistan during the big Hajj (pilgrimage) when Muslim devotees flock to Mecca, Saudi Arabia to fulfill religious goals.

Like the pilgrims, we had clothes, cooking and eating utensils, sleeping gear, safety gear, lots of food and water (water filters would have been useless because of the high silt content of the river water) and the all-important river toilet. A Bureau of Land Management employee specifically checked us for a number of specific items before we were allowed to take off.

Day one was filled with many pleasures: the mixture of shore birds and shore animals, the scenery and awesome ancient Puebloan ruins and petroglyphs. The latter, pictures carved into rock by pecking, incising, and scratching, presented a variety of figures, animals and abstract representations. Because the drawings do not present a written language as we know it, their meaning was totally left to my imagination which went into overdrive.

We camped that first night along the shore on a big sand embankment. At five in the evening, the sun still shed fierce heat and the shade of cottonwoods was highly appreciated. Even the silty water allowed a pleasurable bath.

Day two we stopped at Mexican Hat, a small hamlet named for the inverted stone sombrero located just north of town to refuel with potable water and ice (and ice-cream for Shawn as he was already going through withdrawal symptoms). There was, prior to the stop, a lot of talk of Navajo tacos for lunch. But we didn't have any, as the sole cook hadn't heated up her kitchen yet. Life moves slowly in this hamlet where the ebb and flow of each day is measured by the number of river visitors.

After passing through Mexican Hat, we started traversing the famed Goosenecks of the San Juan. I was a mite looking up at those magnificent canyon walls. Frequent sightings of great blue herons, mountain goats, Canada geese and chukars seem to lead the way into the labyrinth. I missed the mid-point hike to the 1894 prospector cabin of Walter Mendenhall. It was my own fault. I had paddled on ahead, out of sight of the rest and had passed the trailhead without knowing. I felt bad for I had missed a good opportunity to stretch my legs and I had also broken the rule of staying together. I promised to do better. I have learned from that, but I will likely make more mistakes. I have to adjust my solo-runner mentality to a group-think and group-do mentality. This is, after all, a cooperative adventure.

I finally decided the only way to unplug my "race ahead" attitude was to slouch into the inflatable kayak for the next several days and go with the flow.

It was time to take a breather, time to take a significant rest. I devised methods of relaxation visualization by allowing the current to carry away my mental and emotional kinks and coaxing the high canyon walls to embrace me into their solid protectiveness. Here's Zen and the art of floating; simply revel in the sparkling beauty of the river canyon. Ohmmmm!

I loved the rapids where cold sprays of water leaped in. As the inflatable rocked over the waves, I dug in with the paddle. There were scores of small rapids, "sand waves," caused by shifting sands on the river bottom to add several spontaneous roller-coaster rides to the 84-mile trip. My inflatable kayak, a yellow bobbing affair, shifted the San Juan's modest rapids upscale to pretty exciting - but not terrifying - adventure. In short, it was the best introduction for a river neophyte.

As a do it ourselves adventure, everyone was expected to help with the loading and unloading of rafts, setting up camp, cooking and cleaning up after meals. We ate well, very well! I was introduced to Pringles, and found l have been missing out for the last half-century. What delectable, crispy, salty, oily treasures!

Five of the 13 people are from Pagosa. Eight were total strangers from places such as Denver, Salt Lake City, Boulder and Taos. The eclectic conglomeration of personalities would provide many interesting opportunities to observe human behavior. Unfortunately, it allowed several emotional experiences for a couple of the folks. Visions of Lord of the Flies? The strong dominating the meek?

On the third evening, a hike up the Honaker Trail was a reminder of the 1892 gold rush. The reward for those who put forth this 1,200-foot vertical effort is an unforgettable view of Monument Valley. What an endless vista.

The next day we followed the current again looking for more beauty. A stop at a pristine beach to check out Slickhorn Gulch highlights this day. Slickhorn Gulch is one of the premier side canyons along the San Juan River with fern grottos and swimming pools. Although the dry early summer had dried out a number of the pools, and turned others into algae ponds, my imagination allowed me to picture what it could have been: Polished limestone swimming pools of warm water surrounded by slick rock and festooned with hanging ferns. What beauty it must deliver in wet summers.

As we neared the end of the trip, I switched over to a hard-shell kayak. Continuing to learn how to "read" the river to determine where the current is strongest was part of the lesson. The water flow had slowed tremendously and the sand bars meant a rocking and pushing with the paddle in places to get unbogged.

I grew worried about missing the takeout. I had heard that a week before, a couple had gone over the waterfall past the takeout. Since I lived to tell this tale, I didn't miss the takeout.

As I was driven out of Clay Hills into civilization, I asked myself, "What lesson should I take away from this trip?" I have seen the remains of a vanished civilization. I have seen the mountains of sandstone that were once the bottom of an ocean. I have seen how wind and water are wearing them away. I am again reminded how fragile nature can be if our civilization doesn't stop dumping trash into the water that sustains life in these canyons.

On a back-to-reality note, please be reminded that July 4 is upon us. The recreation center will be closed on the fourth. The PLPOA Administration Office will be closed Monday, July 5. Celebrate our independence with pride for our freedom and with humility for the many lives that were given to make that freedom possible.





Grace Helen Putnam

Grace Helen Putnam was born April 2, 2004, at Mercy Medical Center in Durango. The young lady weighed 7 pounds, 13 ounces, and was 19 inches long. She was welcomed by her parents, Bill and Tammi and older sister McKenna. Grandparents are Helen Putnam of Durango and Ollie and Kent Hicks of Kenton, Ohio. Grace obliged by arriving on her mother's birthday.


Madison Joy Vander Wiede

Theo and Sonia Vander Wiede of Pagosa Springs would like to announce the birth of their new daughter Madison Joy Vander Wiede. She was born at 1:37 p.m. Sunday, June 27, in Mercy Medical Center in Durango. She weighed 7 pounds, 15 ounces, and was 19 inches long.




Barbara Nimon

Barbara Berg Nimon (Barb) died, at her daughter's home in Morrison, Colo., June 27, 2004, following a brave fight with cancer. She was born on June 9, 1928, in Gary, Minn., where she spent most of her childhood and graduated from high school in Fargo.

She met her loving husband, Wayne, in Denver where they married on Sept. 1, 1950. They had three children. Barb had a career as an administrative assistant and after 30 years of hard work and dedication, she retired from Johns Manville in 1989. She spent her retirement years in Pagosa Springs, where she was a member of the Gray Wolves and the Pagosa Piecemakers.

Her hobbies were quilting, golf, skiing and hiking, but what she loved most was spending time with her family and friends. She will be fondly remembered for her sense of humor and steadfast devotion to her family.

She is survived by her husband Wayne; daughter Leslie Caimi (Carl) of Morrison; two sons, Mike (Kathy) Fresno, Calif., and Jeff (Sandi) of Grand Junction; brothers Jerry (Ritsuko) Huntsville, Ala., Roger (Shirley) Columbia, Mo., Orvis (Palma), Winterhaven, Fla.; by Marjorie Shamafelt (Dave) Yuba City, Calif., and two grandchildren, Sherilee and Brandon Nimon.

Her death was preceded by her parents Henry and Bernice Berg, sister Harriet Mitchell and brother Donald Berg.

Visitation will be 3-6 p.m. July 2. A service celebrating her life will be held 10 a.m. July 3. Both the visitation and services will be held at Drinkwine Family Mortuary, Inc., 999 W. Littleton Blvd., Littleton, Colo. A reception will follow the services at the home of Carl and Leslie Caimi.


Andy Padilla

Andy Padilla, a native of Pagosa Springs where he was born Nov. 30, 1929, died Friday, June 11, 2004, in Farmington, N.M.

He was the son of Louis and Sara (Ruybalid) Padilla who preceded him in death, as did his daughter, Priscilla Padilla, in 1975; two brothers, Jesus and Amos , and two sisters, Lila Gomez and Dora McMillen.

Andy was known to the San Juan community for his friendly ways and his ability to sell cars. He had been called the king of auto sales.

He is survived by his wife, Priscilla at their home in Aztec; two sons, Michael Padilla Sr. and wife Sherry, and Michael Anthony Padilla; five daughters, Beverly Padilla, Kathleen Roop and husband Rock, Lynda Padilla and Todd, JoAnn Schmaltz and Eric Schlotthauer, Michelle Padilla and Aimee Saunders and her husband, Ian; 12 grandchildren, 14 great-grandchildren, and too many friends to count.

Rosary was recited Monday, June 14, 2004, at St. Joseph Catholic Church in Aztec and Mass of Christian Burial was Tuesday, June 15, 2004. He was then laid to rest at Aztec Community Cemetery.

Pall bearers were Terry and Lucky Pickens, Dave Andeson, Joe Sanchez and Lloyd Husted; honorary bearers Leo Espinosa, Louis Gomez, J.C. Gomez III, Ron Sweeny, J.C. Gomez II, Ronnie Atchley, Gibby Martinez, Bino Martinez, Eric Schlotthauer, Carlos Trujillo, Raymond Padilla and Glen Faverino.

A golden heart stopped beating, hard working hands to rest. God broke our hearts to prove to us he only takes the best! Rest peacefully now "Pops." Your loving family.


Business News


Biz Beat


Dorothy's Restauranté

Dorothy Trefethen owns Dorothy's Restauranté in downtown Pagosa Springs, 755 San Juan St.

A new bar and dance floor addition has been added to the restaurant and now, every Friday, there will be live music from 9 p.m.-1 a.m. with an open dance floor.

Dorothy's Restauranté has been in business for 14 years and serves Mexican and American foods. Come try the huevos rancheros, breakfast burritos or Dorothy's famous green chili burgers.

Dorothy's Restauranté is open Monday through Friday 7 a.m.-9 p.m., Saturday 8 a.m.-3 p.m. and Sunday from 8 a.m.-1 p.m.

For additional information call 264-3164.




Preview Profile

Holly Fulbright

Administrative assistant and volunteer firefighter, Pagosa Fire Protection District

Where were you born?


Where did you go to school?

"I graduated from high school in California and attained a degree in biology from Fort Lewis College in Durango."

When did you arrive in Pagosa Springs?

"December 15, 1973."

What did you do before you arrived here?

"I worked for Wells Fargo as a personal banker."

What are your job responsibilities?

"Primarily answering the phones and public relations. I also work with the fire prevention program at the schools and am the editor of the newsletter."

What are the most enjoyable and least enjoyable aspects of your job?

"The most enjoyable part of my job is when one of the kids who were involved in the fire prevention program shows that they really learned something."

What is your family background?

"I am married with 3 1/2-year-old and 4-month-old sons."

What do you like best about the community?

"The people."

What are your other interests?

"I enjoy reading, playing with the kids and gardening."



Ryan Rottman

Ryan D. Rottman, a sophomore from Pagosa Springs, has been named to the President's List for the Spring semester at Texas Tech University in Lubbock. He maintained a 4.0 grade point average to qualify for the honor.

Katie Lancing

Katie Jo Lancing, a 2002 graduate of Pagosa Springs High School, has been named to the dean's list from the College of Letters and Science at the University of Wisconsin Madison for the spring semester 2004.

She was also named to the first team Academic All Big 10 for volleyball and was named a Board Scholar for recording the highest grade point average in the sport of volleyball.

Joshua Trujillo

Pagosa Springs High School alumnus Joshua Trujillo, who majored in general biology, graduated from Fort Lewis College at the end of the first summer session. Trujillo participated in the May 1 spring commencement ceremonies.

Jana McDonald

Jana L. McDonald of Pagosa Springs received her Master of Healthcare Administration degree May 10 in ceremonies at the College of Arts and Sciences at Seton Hall University, South Orange, N.J.


Cards of Thanks

Pagosa Bow Club

The Pagosa Bow Club benefit shoot held Sunday, June 27, was a huge success. We were able to raise $1,421 for the Pagosa Pathfinders.

We wish to express our sincere thanks to all those who attended and supported this event. We would also like to thank the following sponsors. Without their generous raffle donations, this type of success would not have been possible: Ace Hardware, Bank of Colorado, Bank of the San Juans, City Market, Do It Best, Elements, First Baptist Church, Goodman's, Happy Trails, Hide Out, Home Again, Jackisch Drugs, NAPA, Old Town Gifts, Rainbow Gifts, Rocky Mountain Wildlife Park, Sears, Ski & Bow Rack, Slice of Nature, Sports Emporium, Summit Ski & Sports, Switchback, Wells Fargo Bank, Wilderness Journeys.

Pagosa Bow Club and Pagosa Pathfinders

Chair Event

I'd like to thank all of the artists who worked hard to paint and wood burn on items for the 2004 Chair Event, American Cancer Society fund-raiser in connection with the Relay for Life. Many businesses and private parties donated items for this purpose. Without their help, the Chair Event wouldn't have been the success that it was. And thanks to all of the people who bid on these silent auction items. You have shown that you really enjoy participating in this event. I'm already starting to gather sturdy wooden chairs, stools and small tables for next year's event and they are very nice. See you next June!

Paula Bain,


Rodeo success

The Pagosa Springs Rodeo Series first event of the season was a success thanks to the people who donated their time and equipment.

Thanks to Don and Andy Weber of A&M Construction for hauling water to spread on the arena before the rodeo. Improvement of the ground made the day much more enjoyable for all.

Thanks to Rick House who donated his day off on Saturday to level the main and warm-up arena with a road grader.

Thanks to Sharman Denison for use of an electric timer; to Jack Rosenbaum for announcing a long day of rodeo and fun events; and to Richard Rafferty, Al Flaming, Tiger Regester and Duwayne Shahan for assistance in the arena and J.R. Ford for timing events. Next rodeo day is July 25.

Randy Talbot


Sports Page


Pathfinders score big at state, Cole Kraetsch junior overall champ

Pagosa Pathfinders took 13 shooters to the state Youth Hunter Education challenge, three in the senior (over 14) division and 10 juniors.

Three Pagosa entrants in the senior division won seven of 24 awards. Dusty Bauer took a first in the .22 rifle event and second in orienteering.

Zane Kraetsch took a first in muzzleloader with a perfect score; second places in archery and the hunter safety trail; and third places in written exam and wildlife identification.

In the junior division, 10 Pagosa entrants took 13 of 24 awards presented.

Pagosa made a clean sweep in the archery event with Allison Laverty first, Jason Smith second and Stephen Melendy third.

Laverty also took second on the responsibility exam and Melendy was third in .22 rifle.

Mason Laverty was second on hunter safety trail; Dustin Anderson second in muzzleloader and third on the exam.

Cole Kraetsch was first in .22 rifle, muzzleloader, the exam and the hunter safety trail, second in wildlife identification and third in shotgun. His overall total earned him the title State Junior Overall Champion.

The Pagosa Pathfinders will take a team of five shooters to the international competition later this month in Mansfield, Pa.


Fort Lewis College will host two soccer camps

Fort Lewis College will host a morning soccer camp for boys and girls ages 5-14 Monday-Friday, July 5-9. Cost is $105, with discounts available for multiple weeks, families and teams.

Registration is at 9 a.m. Monday, July 5. Campers will participate in training sessions, individual skill work and a World Cup tournament each day 9 a.m.-noon at the Skyhawk athletic fields. Participants should bring soccer ball, shin guards, water and shoes.

For more information, contact Morgan at 382-6979 or morgan_d-@fortlewis.edu or Gunn at 247-7461 or gunn_j@-fortlewis.edu.

The college will also host a team camp for boys and girls ages 10-14 from Monday-Friday, July 5-9. Cost is $175, with discounts available for multiple weeks, families and teams. Registration is 9 a.m. Monday, July 5.

Give your team expert instruction focused on its specific needs. Team camp will be held each day from 9 a.m.-4 p.m. at the Skyhawk athletic fields. Participants should bring soccer ball, shin guards, water and shoes. Camp staff and other details same as above.


Pagosa Springs Volleyball Club opens July 6

The Pagosa Springs Volleyball Club will begin summer sessions Tuesday, July 6, 4-6 p.m. at Pagosa Springs High School.

The sessions are open to girls who will be attending high school this year (grades 9-12).

Registration cost is $25 per member. Anyone interested in participating in the program who does not already have a registration form can pick one up at the high school when practice opens July 6.

Summer sessions are scheduled Tuesdays and Thursdays and will include instruction from the Pirate coaching staff.

For more information, contact Penné Hamilton, club sponsor, at 264-2441.


Women's golf scores falling; Pine Cone Classic on horizon

By Lynne Allison

Special to The SUN

The Pagosa Women's Golf Association featured a "fairway/rough" format for league play June 22.

This unique format involved some very interesting score calculation as drives and putts were deducted from the total score for each hole. Half of each player's total handicap was deducted from the adjusted total score.

Winners in the gross division for the day were Cherry O'Donnell, first with a 32; Barbara Sanborn second at 36; Nancy Chitwood took third with a 40; and Jan Kilgore was fourth with 41.

Net division winners were Kristin Hatfield, first with 22; tied for second were Marilyn Prueter and Robyn Alspach, each with 27; and Jane Day was fourth with a 31.

Several association members traveled to Dalton Ranch Golf Club in Durango June 26 for the annual Columbine Classic with the 100-player field including teams of four women who play a best two-ball gross and net score format.

The Pagosa squad of Cherry O'Donnell, Josie Hummel, Sheila Rogers and Sue Martin captured first place gross in the first flight with a total score of 184.

This was considered a major accomplishment considering the size of the field, the difficulty of the course and the challenging greens.

The Pagosa Springs Rotary Club and the Pagosa Springs Golf Club sponsored the annual Chuck Dorman Memorial Tournament June 26.

Association winners in the ladies' flight, gross division, were Barbara Sanborn, first with an 82, and Josie Hummel, second with 95. Net division winners were Lynne Allison, first with 61, and Judy Horky, second with a 67.

The annual Pine Cone Classic tournament hosted by Pagosa Springs Golf Club and the Pagosa Women's Golf Association is scheduled July 12-14.

This tournament is for teams of four women who play a best two-ball net and gross score format. Please direct inquiries and requests for registration forms to pineconeclassic@hotmail.com or call Audrey Johnson at 731-9811.


Volleyball skills camp set for younger players

The Pagosa Springs Volleyball Club gets into high gear with a skills training camp for girls who will be in grades 5-8 next school year.

Sessions will be held 9-11 a.m. July 5-8 in the high school gymnasium.

The camp will be conducted by the Pagosa Pirate coaching staff, including head coach Penné Hamilton, junior varsity coach Connie O'Donnell and C-team coach Norma Schaffer. The coaches will be assisted by members of the Pirate varsity.

Girls not yet signed up are urged to do so as soon as possible, since camp T-shirts must be ordered. Camp fee is $40.

Call Hamilton at 264-2441 to register or for more information.


Parks & Rec


Holiday events set; Challenge winners named

By Joe Lister Jr.

SUN Columnist

Dance to the music of Jonny Mogambo Band July 4, at the sports complex. The dance music will start immediately following the finale of the 2004 fireworks show.

The whole show promises to be great, with the weather looking like it will cooperate, our crews, both parks and recreation gearing up and ready.

Jon Linder, the lead singer and founder of the band, promises great fun, so get on your dance shoes and come on down.


Enzo's Catering, Pagosa Springs Kiwanis Club, and the 9-10 traveling baseball team will provide great fresh food for all picnickers. Let us plan your party, including food and beverage.


There will be a beer garden on 5th Street, next to the high school baseball fields. The beer must be kept within the area designated for the vendor. This year the Four Corners Folk Festival will be serving up your favorite cold beverage.

Reserved parking

Reserved parking can be arranged for a small donation to the fireworks show. Call for more information at 264-4151, Ext. 231.

Challenge winners

Over 50 children took part in the Rockies Baseball Skills Challenge competition hosted by the Pagosa Springs Parks and Recreation Department June 26.

The following earned first place honors in their respective age groups.

Boys: Ages 6-7, Caden Henderson; ages 8-9, Clint Walkup; ages 10-11, K.C. Lord; ages 12-13, Austin Willis.

Girls: Ages 8-9, Trisha Flihan; ages 12-13, Mary Brinton.

These six winners now move on to a sectional competition Sunday, July 18, at the Runyon Sports Complex in Pueblo. They could then qualify for the state championships to be held at Coors Field in conjunction with the Colorado Rockies/Montreal Expos game Aug. 22.

The Challenge allows youngsters to showcase their talents in base running, batting and throwing with scores based on speed, distance and accuracy. It is a youth program of the Colorado Parks and Recreation Association. The Colorado Rockies and the Robert R. McCormick Tribune Foundation have provided a grant in support of the program.

Adult softball

Our adult softball leagues continue in full swing with six men's and five coed teams doing battle each Monday and Wednesday night.

With teams from Pagosa Springs and Dulce competing each week the games have been close and exciting. Play will continue throughout the summer, with playoffs beginning in August.

Open volleyball

Adult open volleyball will begin Tuesday, July 6, and continue throughout the summer. Participants must be at least juniors in high school. For more information contact Myles Gabel at 264-4151, Ext. 232.

Youth volleyball camp

Youth volleyball camps will take place during the month of July for grades 5-8 and 9-12.

To reserve a spot for camp, contact Penné Hamilton at 264-2231 or Myles Gabel at 264-4151, Ext. 232.

Youth baseball

The youth baseball season is coming to an end with our final week of competition.

Come out and root for your teams at the Sports Complex Tuesday and Thursday. Pagosa Springs All-Star Competition will begin later this month.

Hiring umpires, referees

The Pagosa Springs Recreation Department continues to seek individuals interested in officiating baseball, volleyball, soccer or basketball. Please contact Gabel if you are interested. Pay is $15-$25 per game.




A Fun, safe Fourth of July

Summer brings with it our most sustained period of tourist activity. The season is bracketed by two notable holidays: the Fourth of July and Labor Day. This weekend, if typical, we will see the largest influx of people into the area this year. It is an exciting time. We need to make visitors welcome and to fully enjoy the many opportunities for entertainment ourselves. This is the high point of the season.

The venues are many this year. Workers were busy in the athletic field across from Town Park early in the week, setting up the carnival, an annual lure to kids and kids at heart.

Across the street, in Town Park, and down the Riverwalk at Centennial Park, vendors will set up booths for the annual Park to Park Arts and Crafts Fair.

The centerpiece of the holiday is a cherished tradition - the Red Ryder Roundup. Named after Pagosan Fred Harman's famed cartoon creation, the rodeo draws competitors and fans from far and near. There will be three rodeo performances with a complete slate of events and entertainment at each. Friday night, a benefit dance at the fair building will feature Tim Sullivan and The Narrow Gauge.

On July 3 Pagosa Springs Rotary Club presents the Fourth of July parade, with entries passing through the heart of town to the delight of the spectators who line the route.

This year, the Fourth of July fireworks display and the entertainment attendant to the aerial artistry takes place downtown at the sports complex near the high school. There will be games, food, music, fireworks and a dance, with festivities lasting late into the evening.

Fun is the order of the day, but residents and visitors alike should be mindful of the dangers that come of careless behavior.

First, respect the potential for tragedy when motorists drink and drive. The chance for disaster aside, Colorado law, as of July 1, sets a lower blood alcohol limit for determining alcohol-impaired driving. Starting today, the blood alcohol percentage that defines driving under the influence drops to .08 percent. For some people, a minimal amount of alcohol will put them over the legal limit. For them, drinking and driving could make for an unpleasant, expensive holiday weekend.

Water in the streams has fallen and cleared and, as readers can see in photos in this issue, the fishing is fine. The lure of the out of doors is at its peak and plenty of people are heading for the woods to camp.

We have had rain during the past week and, while welcome and necessary, it has not significantly lowered the fire danger level in the region. Fire bans are still in place in Archuleta County. There is a ban on all open fires, and this includes the holiday campfire or bonfire. Wildfire is our No. 1 summer risk and we cannot afford to take chances, either at home or out in the forest. With the ban, contrary to tradition and what visitors from certain other states are accustomed to, there are no fireworks allowed in the county other than those at the town display. Yes, some of the fun goes out of our holiday when we cannot celebrate in any way we desire, but it is for the best that we comply with these regulations.

Whether you are a resident or a visitor, fun will be abundant this weekend. Have a great time, but take care.

Karl Isberg


Pacing Pagosa


A few good men set our course

By Richard Walter

Staff Writer

In the good old days, they say, July 4 was the most important holiday of the year. Historians will tell you it got even more attention than Christmas.

What they won't tell you is that it was much easier to celebrate Independence Day because you didn't have to buy gifts for a lot of people when you couldn't afford it ... firecrackers were a lot cheaper and a lot more fun.

Still, there's a sense of message missing in the analysis. Where would either of the holidays mentioned be, in this country, without the other?

Independence Day, the 4th of July, was the culmination of a sequence of events ostensibly based on desire for religious freedom and which led to the founding of the nation.

Religious freedom gave people the right to worship as they pleased, wherever they found the need to do so.

I read not too long ago that there are in excess of 15,000 different "religions" in this nation with members worshipping as diverse entities as the God of Christians, the Allah of Islam, the Buddha of Buddhism and assorted objects such as snakes, specific types of trees, sky colors and just about any object or visible diversion one can imagine.

That might be considered real religious freedom.

But July 4 celebrates the birth of a nation escaping the bondage of another land its people, in great part, had fled from; a nation which sought to preempt liberty and the pursuit of happiness guaranteed in the new country's now revered Declaration of Independence.

These lines penned by Thomas Jefferson tell the story of the founders' wisdom:

"We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." (Capitalizations are in the author's original).

Jefferson and the other 53 signers saw human freedom as the goal of a new nation they were creating, one based on equal rights.

John Adams, for example, wrote:

"I always consider the settlement of America with reverence and wonder, as the opening of a grand scene and design in providence, for the illumination of the ignorant and the emancipation of the slavish part of mankind all over the earth."

Another was the erudite Benjamin Franklin who authored hundreds of oft-remembered and quoted commentaries but none more apropos than, "We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately."

That set the course for a new nation to follow, one it has steered through all the turbulent seas of freedom-based national identity.

We've had good leaders and bad. We've been misdirected and lied to. But the nation has maintained the course set by those 54 men.

Jefferson also said: "The strongest reason for the people to retain the right to keep and bear arms is, as a last resort, to protect themselves against tyranny in government."

On a day with freedom threatened around the world, actions of July 4, 1776 still ring true.




90 years ago

Taken from Pagosa Springs New Era files of July 3, 1914

Last Saturday, while doing ditch work on his extensive ranch near town, E.T. Walker, one of the oldest and best known citizens of Archuleta County, suffered a violent stroke of paralysis, and, although Dr. Mary Fisher reports a slight improvement, his condition at this writing is very serious. The many friends of the Walker family anxiously await news of his improvement and extend their heartfelt sympathy.

A severe rainstorm yesterday interfered with the ball game and other outdoor sports. However, the picture shows and dances were in full blast, so the visitors had some place to go for entertainment. Today the basketball game will begin at 9:00 and the ball game at 10:00 a.m.

75 years ago

Taken from SUN files of July 5, 1929

The Sunetha Golf Club, which this year staged the celebration in Pagosa Springs, is well pleased with the interest shown, the great attendance and the general success of the 1929 July 4th celebration in Pagosa Springs yesterday. While their expenses were heavy, the club will net a neat sum towards putting their course in first-class condition.

About the busiest man in town these days is Police Magistrate R.C. Hill, who is called upon almost daily to deal out justice in the way of fines and costs for violators of the various town ordinances involving the peace and dignity of this municipality.

Mrs. Halfhill of the Saddleback Ranch is at the Hatcher Hospital this week for medical treatment.

50 years ago

Taken from SUN files of July 2, 1954

The rough, tough stock arrived in town Monday of this week and the rodeo livestock contractors arrived here the same day from Gallup, N.M., where they had just completed a show. The specialty acts and rodeo contestants started to arrive Wednesday and the town has a real rodeo time look. The carnival is set up in the Town Park and many business houses have decorated with a western atmosphere type decoration.

Red Ryder and Little Beaver will lead the parade and they will continue through into the Town Park where they will be available for photos with their young followers.

Promptly at 1:30 the big rodeo will get underway with the grand entry.

25 years ago

Taken from SUN files of July 5, 1979

The Red Ryder Roundup this year was again an outstanding affair. The crowd at the rodeo July 3 was very small. However, the 4th of July attendance was very good. The parade was somewhat smaller than usual, but entries in it were outstanding. Over 200 cowboys competed for the large cash prizes and there were several outstanding horse races.

Deer and elk are being seen in increasing numbers at higher elevations, indicating that the herds that moved south this past winter may be coming back. However, there is still snow and ice at the very high elevations and big game is scarce there.

July has arrived but not with a blaze of scorching weather. Temperatures have been moderate.




Pagosa Rotarians celebrate 25 years in Pagosa Springs

By Tess Noel Baker

Staff Writer

"Service above self."

That is the motto of over 1.2 million Rotarians in 166 countries around the world, including the 75 members of the Pagosa Springs Rotary Club.

Mini-grants for teachers. Scholarships for seniors. Dictionaries for third-graders. A park for tourists. Beautifying the highways. Homes for exchange students. Relay for Life. These are just a few of the projects supported by the local Rotary Club.

And then there's money sent to PolioPlus, a global campaign to eradicate the polio virus worldwide by the year 2005, funds for water sources and computers for orphanages in Honduras and service projects in India as part of Rotary Club International.

"With a group 75 people strong you can do a lot more than you can as an individual," Pagosa's newest Rotary Club president, Jann Pitcher, said. "I like that we are able to help people and help the community." Not only that, but the local club is supported by a district, zone, national and international organization where money can be matched and passed on until small numbers make a big difference.

Pitcher has been a member of Pagosa's Rotary Club since 1986 - the first year women were accepted into the club's membership. In fact, she was the first female member of Rotary not only in the local club, but in the district.

"I went to Rotary to do a program talking about the ski area, and learned more about it. Jack DeLange sponsored me," she said. At the time, she didn't realize she was making history.

"For a while, I was the only woman, but then we started getting a few more," she said. "Now we're pretty even."

Rotary Club started in Pagosa Springs 25 years ago, 75 years after Paul P. Harris organized the first club in Chicago, Ill., Feb. 23, 1905. That night, according to club documents, he had dinner with a friend, Chicago coal dealer Silvester Schiele. After the meal, they met with Gustavus Loehr, a mining engineer, and another friend, Hiram Shorey, a merchant tailor. Harris suggested they form a club.

At the second meeting, A.L. White joined the group, instituting the practice of singing at the meetings - a tradition that continues today.

Eventually, they chose the name Rotary because of their practice of rotating the meetings from one person's office to another. In the beginning, the goal was fellowship, acquaintance and increased business for each member. However, as the club evolved, the "Service above self" motto was adopted, focusing the club on community instead of the individual.

Today, Rotary is described, according to Rotary 101 literature, "as an organization of business and professional people united in service worldwide to provide humanitarian service, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations and help build good will and peace in the world." Official policy prohibits any attempt to use membership in the club to a commercial advantage.

To this end, they follow a code of ethics adopted in 1943 commonly called "The Four Way Test." Four simple questions are asked:

"Is it the truth? Is it fair to all concerned? Will it build good will and better friendships? Will it be beneficial to all concerned?"

Pitcher said the spirit of the Four Way Test is one of the things she plans to focus on during her year as president. She also plans to encourage members to work on as many service projects as possible.

She follows James "Buz" Gillentine, who focused on membership participation, funding an international project and making the meetings "as much fun as possible."

Gillentine said although input from the membership is welcome and encouraged, the club's direction and projects are set by a 13-member board of directors. At present, the board includes Bob Scott, Bob Eggleston, Livia Lynch, Kathi DeClark, Ming Steen, Rod Preston, Sherry Waner, Diane Bower, Tony Gilbert, Susan Neder, Warren Grams, Gene Crabtree and the immediate past president, Gillentine.

To be more efficient, Rotary clubs divide their activities into four or five major committees, or in Rotary lingo, "Avenues of Service." Pagosa has traditionally stuck with four: Club Service, Vocational Service, Community Service and International Service. Recently, Pitcher said, Youth Service has been added to help focus the group's growing efforts to support local school and youth activities, including the exchange student program, a program close to Pitcher's heart. After all, she served as the Youth Exchange Director for 12 years.

The Pagosa Springs Rotary Club has hosted 12 exchange students since its inception and sponsored six or seven local students on exchanges with other countries. Each exchange is for a year and requires three or four families to host a student for three or four months at a time.

"We have never had a duplicate country," Pitcher said. "These exchange students come in and our small town kids get to learn about different cultures. It's a great way to bring different ideas to the high school."

The Pagosa Springs Rotary Club meets weekly on Thursdays at JJ's Upstream Restaurant. The meetings last from 11:30 a.m.-1 p.m. and visitors are always welcome. Cost of the meal is $10.

In order to become a fullfledged member of Rotary, a person must be sponsored by another Rotary member, pay annual dues and participate in the new membership program to become acclimated to all the different programs available - locally, nationally and internationally.

Dick Babillis, who served as the Rotary Club secretary for nine years and remains an active Rotarian, said the number of activities available is what makes the group so appealing. "All the way from contributions to the scholarship fund to personally tutoring a student, and everywhere in between. Picking up trash, fielding a team for the Relay for Life cancer walk, hosting a foreign exchange student - everywhere you turn there is something to do," he said. "The possibilities are limited only by your imagination.

And the best part, in everything you choose to take on, you have partners with whom to participate. And they all have an attitude - What can I do to assist?"

The Pagosa Springs Rotary Club organizes three major fund-raisers a year to support all of its charitable activities. These include: Rotary Casino Night, the Winterfest Follies which are being revamped slightly this year and an annual golf tournament. According to the 2004-05 proposed budget, these are estimated to raise about $27,000 this year. That in turn will be given to things like: the scholarship fund for four to six graduating seniors, the teacher mini-grant fund, Archuleta County 4-H, dictionaries for third-graders, Health Fair needy vouchers, Music in the Mountains Goes to School, Operation Helping Hand, Pagosa Outreach Connections and others. Pitcher said some funds are also reserved for unknown requests that come to the group, sometimes monthly, for community projects.


Pagosa Country Fourth of July - something for everyone

By Richard Walter

Staff Writer

Chaps dusty from the trail, horses chomping at the bit for a taste of fresh, cool water.

In the old days of Pagosa Country, riders came in from outlying ranches to try their hand at the small town rodeo, putting on a show with the skills they'd learned on the range.

Purses weren't large, but for many of the cowpunchers it would make a fair nest egg to tide them over the winter if they could place in a couple of events.

People still come to Pagosa Springs for the Red Ryder Roundup, as traditional a part of small town Fourth of July Americana as you can find. This year's is the 55th anniversary event, but there were rodeos in the town much earlier.

Long before the current rodeo grounds was built, rodeos and horse races were summer highlights, first along the west side of old Light Plant Road (Hot Springs Boulevard) and later on grounds which once also served as the community baseball field in the area where South Pagosa Park now sits on South 8th Street.

Of course, the contestants no longer ride in on the steeds they'll use in competition. Some horse trailers today would have had the old-time wranglers wishing they had one for a bunkhouse. Their classy cayuses are pulled by gargantuan machines capable of outhauling even the best team of wagon pullers of old.

That doesn't mean the modern performers are any less proficient than the early rodeo entrants, just that the equipment is more modern.

This year's Red Ryder Roundup rodeo will play to huge crowds July 2, 3 and 4 with performances beginning at 6 p.m. Friday, 2 p.m. Saturday and 6 p.m. Sunday in the Red Ryder Arena at Archuleta County Fairgrounds. Go east to the intersection of U.S. 160 and 84, turn south for about 500 yards and you're there.

All the traditional events are part of the Red Ryder program: bareback and saddle bronc riding, bull riding, steer wrestling, team roping, scrambled egg/team roping, calf roping, barrel racing girls' breakaway and kids' barrels.

Children's mutton busting will be a feature each day (and no, the sheep are not hurt by the child's weight).

Additional entertainment will be provided by the Frontier Belles Sidesaddlers - ladies in period costumes, performing an intricate drill.

Tickets for the rodeo are available at Goodman's Department Store or at the gate. Fees are $8 for adults and $5 for children 12 and under.

New this year will be a Western Heritage Arena benefit dance starting 9 p.m. Friday. Live music will feature Tim Sullivan and The Narrow Gauge at $25 per couple, $15 per person and $5 for a child with parent.

Proceeds of this event in the Extension building will benefit a planned Western Heritage Indoor Arena at the fairgrounds. Dance tickets are available at Happy Trails, and Silverado Western Wear, and at the door the night of the event.

So, you newcomers might ask, Why call it Red Ryder Roundup? The answer is simple. The Red Ryder comic strip was created by former local artist Fred Harman, whose son still resides here and operates a museum.

The cartoonist was a familiar sight in the early days, leading the annual parade with his sidekick Little Beaver (a new youth almost every year picked from Pagosa and surrounding communities), and always included references in comic strips to the town and his ranch on the Blanco River.

Skies ablaze

And when it came to fireworks after all the competition in the past, you could count on small towns like Pagosa to light up the night.

Often the merchants banded together to finance the show with municipal assistance and folks came from miles around to see the bombs bursting in air (and, some say, hear a stick of dynamite or two detonated in the area).

It is something you still can see, a major ending for the three-day holiday celebration, this year at the sports complex south of the high school at the south end of 8th Street at about 9:15 p.m. Sunday.

Rotary parade

We love a parade, and so do thousands of visitors every year. Pagosa brings you one of the best known and largest events in the region. Sometimes it seems there are more people watching than actually live in the county. Estimates have run as high as 7,000 viewers.

You have to get out early to get a good spot to view. In fact, many people pick out a primary viewing post the night before and stake it out so they'll be right on the front lines when the parade kicks off at 10 a.m., this year on Saturday, July 3, with an estimated 100 entries.

The parade is annually sponsored by Rotary Club of Pagosa Springs with a special theme. This year that theme is "Pagosa Heritage."

Keep in mind that children are sometimes so enamored of the passing entries that they fail to recognize imminent danger.

Keep and eye on your future bull riders and queens and princesses so their memory won't be ruined by an unfortunate accident and they'll be part of future heritage.

Quilt Fest

Quilt Fest 2004 will bring visitors and residents alike into a world of quilting talent astounding in such a small community. There will be more than 100 quilts on display. Hours are 11 a.m.-7 p.m. July 2 and 3 and noon to 4 p.m. July 4 in the Mamie Lynch Gymnasium at 4th and Lewis streets.

Admission is $2 for adults and $1 for children.

This year's show will feature a special educational component geared to children. It will describe and show what quilting is and how it is done; give viewers a chance to sit and play with quilt components and see how they meld together for a final product; visit with costumed "dummies" in the old-time school room atmosphere; and try the quilting trivia quiz.

Other events

Music fests, picnics, games for all members of all families, resident and visitor alike, are all part of the lure of small town celebration.

While the number of cars and the mass of people may belie the small town description, Pagosa Springs manages every year to keep the events in tune with the motto of the day and to ease, at least momentarily, the concerns of a citizenry tiring of daily stories of death and destruction.

Television brings the pathos of the world into your living room, but it will not give you the thrill of a small child seeing her first parade, a young boy coming out of the chute for the first time in a mutton-busting competition, or a grizzled rider pitting skills learned in a lifetime in the saddle against the showy talent of the newcomer to the circuit.

Costumes galore grace the streets, and not all of them in the parade or on the backs of rodeo performers. Most common among them is some form of patriotic blending of the national colors; and the flags combining those hues fly at every event.

This year's town picnic and fireworks show will be Sunday afternoon and evening at the sports complex south of the high school which lies at the south end of 8th Street.

VIP tents and tailgating setups will begin 1-3 p.m. and vendors can set up 1-4 p.m.

Games will begin at 4 p.m. The Hopi Black Thunder Powwow singers and dancers will appear at 6 p.m. Our own Pagosa Hot Strings will perform 7-9 p.m.; fireworks will be around 9:15 p.m. and from 9:45 p.m. until midnight, festivalgoers will be able to dance to Jonny Mogambo and Band featuring modern music of the '60s, '70s and '80s. Special parking and camper setup is available for a $50 donation toward cost of fireworks.

Four Corners Folk Festival producers will sponsor a beer garden on nearby South 5th Street, off school property. Kettle corn, glow sticks and other vendors will be on site.

Other sponsors will be Enzo's, McDonald's, Mike Branch, American Legion, Kiwanis, The House of Muskets, The Source, Pagosa Springs Area Chamber of Commerce and the Town of Pagosa Springs.

Arts and crafts

Somewhere, sometime during the celebration, be sure to visit the Riverwalk and view the articles offered in booths in the annual Park to Park arts and crafts show linking Town Park to Centennial Park with tents and goods galore.

And what child doesn't love a carnival?

It has been a tradition in Pagosa Springs for years - with the location varying from time to time in the past - and this will be no exception, with the rides, games and food all on the grounds in Town Park throughout the holiday weekend.


Pagosa's Past


A look at Bondad's parallels

to Pagosa Country settlement

John M. Motter

Staff Writer

Settlement in the San Juan Basin was late coming when compared to most other parts of this nation. Permanent residents didn't take up homes until the late 1860s and 1870s.

Settled even later was the Ute Strip, a stretch of land along the New Mexico/Colorado border generally stretching from Allison west beyond the La Plata River. The Ute strip was opened for homesteading beginning in 1899.

Bondad was one of the communities established in the Ute Strip. Writing in "Pioneers of the San Juan Country" Volume IV, former teacher Edith Rhodes tells us about the settlement of Bondad. We talk about the settlement of Bondad because there are many parallels between the activities of the folks who settled there and those who settled closer to Pagosa Springs.

We're told that Joe Smith, the Ute agent at Ignacio, bought the Oscar Gibson place and also part of the Truby homestead. (Motter's note: The Trubys participated in one of the best known, shoot 'em up feuds in the San Juan Basin). He and his wife Allie raised their niece Irene Foulk (Mrs. Lewis Campbell of Durango).

Mrs. Vic Day owned the lower part of the Truby homestead and lived there many years with her son, George Vest Day. Mrs. Day and Mrs. George Smith were half sisters and both were wonderful cooks. Mrs. Day was a great lover of the outdoors and she used to say to us, "Girls, if you are all out of kilter and your joints ache, just get out in the flower garden and down on your knees and dig in the good earth." She loved to fish and could catch them, too, and the stories she told were big, big.

The Truby's lived on the homestead known as the Dave Day place (in 1961), having run for it in 1899. Pioneers from Texas, the Truby's had lived four years on the buffalo range. They lived in various parts at Bondad for a good many years. A favorite story was about Grandma Truby when she killed a buffalo with the help of two dogs and a butcher knife because the family needed the meat. She picked the wool off of it and made a mattress, which is still in the family. This happened up near Meeker, Colorado, about the time of the Meeker Massacre (1879). Mrs. Truby was especially noted for her wonderful homemade bread which she baked for her five cowboy sons and any others who smelled it.

Another story told by the Truby family was that during the Meeker Massacre the Indians scalped a white woman and made her little girl dance around the fire with her mother's scalp in her mouth.

Mr. Truby and two sons died while the family lived at Elco. The sons were victims of a sheepmen-cattlemen feud.

There was a woman who homesteaded across Hi Flume Canyon adjoining Croup Charlie's place. She had some chickens and every time she left home the coyotes would slip in and get one. Finally, she got a sack and cut a hole for the head of each remaining hen and when she went visiting she put them in the sack and carried them over her shoulder.

Motter's note: Many stories told by the pioneers were just that - stories that might or might not be true. I doubt if the story about the little girl with her mother's scalp is true, although it might be. In any case, the fact that pioneers believed and spread such stories gives us a picture of their attitudes toward Indians.

More next week on early settlers in Pagosa Country and the San Juan Basin.



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